There are mainly two method for
extraction of minerals which are as
FACTORS INFLUENCING CHOICE OF MINING
• Depth of the deposit
• Shape of the deposit
• Thickness of the deposit
• Gradient of the deposit
• Availability of machineries
• Economic value of minerals
• Characteristics of roof and floor
Photo from www.google.com
• Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation,
dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore
deposits (or) surface mining is the process of extraction of minerals
by removal of overburden .
• Overburden is the rock or waste material which is lying on the
mineral to be owned .
• Surface mining is also know as , Open pit, Open cast and Strip
• Sump should be located at the bottom of the Mine .
• Height and width of the bench .
• Drilling and blasting .
METHOD OF SURFACE MINING INCLUDES
• Open-pit mining: Which is the recovery of materials from an open pit
in the ground .
• Quarrying: Identical to open-pit mining except that it refers to sand,
stone and clay.
• Strip mining :Which consists of stripping surface layers off to reveal
ore/seams underneath .
• Mountaintop removal: Commonly associated with coal mining, which
involves taking the top of a mountain off to reach ore deposits at
DIFFERENT TYPE OF MACHINERY AND
TRANSPORT SYSTEM USED IN SURFACE
• Drill Machine
• Shovel + Dumper
• Surface Miner
• Bucket Wheel Excavator
• In-pit Crusher + Spreader
• Belt Conveyors System
• Rail Transport System
BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR
Photo from www.google.com
ADVANTAGES OF SURFACE MINING
• Like Underground Mining no minerals are blocked as shaft pillars ,
supports , roadways etc.
• Roof control and ventilation is not required .
• Low cost as compared to Underground Mining .
• Low labor requirement than Underground Mining.
• Hazards and dangers are lesser than Underground Mining .
• Quality control is easy .
• Female labors can work in Surface Mining.
• High degree of mechanization is possible .
• High explosives can be used .
LIMITATION OF SURFACE MINING
• This method can be uneconomic for extracting the minerals at a
depth of more than 300 m .
• There maybe huge environmental problems .
• Weather affects .
• Limited by striping ratio.
• Require a remote area for mine waste deposal .
• Degradation of surface land .
• About 85% of the world coal is obtained by open cast mining method
• By this method, more production can be obtained than underground
• Less time required to full fill the production in less than 50% of
underground mining method.
• Greater output per mine , output up to 50 million tones per mine are
being obtained in the former USSR as against 8 million tones for the
largest Underground Mine.
• Greater simplicity in auxiliary operation and service .
• Surface Mining Technology (second enlarge edition)
by: Samir Kumar Das
• Elements of Mining Technology (Vol. 1&3)
• Principles and Practices of Modern Coal Mining
• Photos from www.Google.com
• Some information has been taken from www.Wikipedia.org
• The presenters wish to acknowledge the Management and
faculty members of GIET and Aditya engineering colleges for
providing an opportunity to do this task.
• And also the presenters acknowledge the parents, friends for
their continuous encouragement in doing this work.