Multiculturalism andPluriculturalism in Italy“We turn in and We look for the stranger“William ShakespeareThe enrichment of our cultures is based on a set of fundamental freedoms andfundamental values and at its heart is thatconcept of non-discrimination
The Constitution of ItalyThe Constitution of Italy(Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana)is the Supreme Law of Italy.
The TextThe Italian Constitution came into force on 1st January 1948, one centuryafter the come into force of Statuto Albertino, the past Italian constitution..It is divided into three main parts:Fundamental Principles•Part I: Rights and Duties of Citizens•Part II: Organization of the Republic•The last part is called Transitory and Final Provisions
Art. 3 All citizens have equal social dignity and are equal before the law,without distinction of sex, race, language, religion, political opinion,personal and social conditions. It is the duty of the Republic to remove those obstacles of an economic orsocial nature which constrain the freedom and equality of citizens […..]
Art. 6 The Republic safeguards linguistic minoritiesby means of appropriate measures.
Art. 7 The State and the Catholic Church are independent andsovereign, each within its own sphere. Their relations areregulated by the Lateran pacts […….]Art. 8• All religious denominations are equally free before the law.Denominations other than Catholicism have the right to self-organisation according to their own statutes, provided these donot conflict with Italian law.
Art. 10 [......]A foreigner who, in his home country, is denied the actual exerciseof the democratic freedoms guaranteed by the Italian constitutionshall be entitled to the right of asylum under the conditionsestablished by law. A foreigner may not be extradited for a political offence
Art. 11 Italy rejects war as an instrument of aggression against thefreedom of other peoples and as a means for the settlement ofinternational disputes.[....]
Ethnic GroupsItaly has been the home of various peoples: Lombardsand Goths in the north;Greeks, Saracens, and Spaniards in Sicily and thesouth;Latins in and around Rome;Etruscans and others in central Italy.For centuries, however, Italy has enjoyed a high degreeof ethnic homogeneity. The chief minority groups arethe German-speaking people in the South Tyrolregion and the Slavs of the Trieste area.
FROM A SOURCE TO A DESTINATIONCOUNTRY OF MIGRATIONAs it’s well known, Italyhas a long tradition ofout-migration and it hasbegun receiving sizeableinflows of migrants onlyin the last decades: it’s in1974 that the number ofimmigrants coming fromabroad exceeded, for thefirst time, the amount ofItalian migrants’expatriations.
Modern MigrationsBetween 1876 and1942 nearly 19millions of Italianswent abroad, almosthalf of them crossedthe Ocean.From 1918 and 1930and a new decreasedue to the fascistanti-emigration policy,the post-war periodrecords a growingnumber ofexpatriations until thebeginning of theSeventies, mainlydirected to Germany,Belgium, France,Switzerland.
Incoming Migration It’s since the late 1980’sthat numerous migrantsfrom Third Worldcountries and EasternEurope have beenentering Italy. During the late 1980s, theinflow from non-EUcountries was estimatedat more than 100,000people per year by 1999 migrants living inItaly were estimated at anumber between1,300,000 and 1,500,000people, or about 2.3% ofthe domestic population. At the start of 2011 therewere 4,570,317 foreignnationals resident in Italy,the 7.5% of the country’spopulation
Statistics and.......2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 20111,549,373 1,990,159 2,402,157 2,670,514 2,938,922 3,432,651 3,891,295 4,235,059 4,570,317Total legal immigrant population, as of 1 January. Source: demo.istat.it.These figures include more than half a million children born inItaly to foreign nationals—second generation immigrants arebecoming an important element in the demographic picture—but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquiredItalian nationality; this applied to 65,938 people in 2010.They also exclude illegal immigrants, the so-calledclandestini, whose numbers are difficult to determine. InMay 2008, the Boston Globe quoted an estimate of670,000 for this group.