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History

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HISTORY IN BRIEF English Bill of Rights,1689 American Bill of Rights,1791 The French Declaration of Right of Man,1789

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History

  1. 1. HISTORY IN BRIEF English Bill of Rights,1689 American Bill of Rights,1791 The French Declaration of Right of Man,1789 Vaibhav Sonule Asst.Prof, School of Law Alliance University Bangalore
  2. 2. The English Bill of Rights, 1689
  3. 3. • An Act declaring the rights and liberties of the subject. • Rights of citizen represented by Parliament against Crown.
  4. 4. HISTORY • Formal Constitution in 1650 • Inefficient ruling • Demand to set up ‘Member of Parliament’ • Monarchy restored
  5. 5. Contents • Limited Royal Power and established Supremacy of Parliament. • King can not create/suspend Law • Freedom of Speech and debate • Free Election
  6. 6. AMERICAN BILL OF RIGHTS,1791
  7. 7. • Absolute Freedom • All powers are vested and derived from People
  8. 8. HISTORY • British Rule • Rebel of Colonies in North America • Established Equivalent Govt. • Unsuccessful attempt by Britishers • Passed Declaration of Independent in 1776 • Prepare draft of Constitution in 1987 • First Ten amendments is “Bill of Rights”
  9. 9. PREAMBLE • Inspired by John Locke “Each individual is free and equal in the State” • Public confidence in Govt. • No abuse of power
  10. 10. CONTENTS • Freedom of Speech Religion Press Assembly • Right to keep arms • Security of State
  11. 11. The French Declaration of Right of Man,1789
  12. 12. • Against absolute Monarchy • Declaration defined collective rights of citizen and role of Govt. to secure these rightd
  13. 13. HISTORY • Absolute monarchy by King Louis XVI • Govt. facing financial crises • Destruction of French Navy in American Revolution in • Declaration passed by National Constituent assembly on 26 Aug. 1789 • Republic State in 1792 • King executed in 1793
  14. 14. Inspired by • Rousseau – Social Contract Theory • Montesquieu – Separation of Power
  15. 15. CONTENT • The aim of Political association is the preservation of rights • Law is the expression of General Will • Equality before Law • All the citizens have right to decide public contribution through Representative • No illegal arrest and detention
  16. 16. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1948
  17. 17. • International peace • Common standard of achievement for all
  18. 18. History • World War II • Establishment of United Nations in 1945 • General assembly and refers the matter of International Declaration on Human Rights. • Drafting Committee established under Economical and Social Council • “International Bill of Human Rights” prepared
  19. 19. • General Assembly adopted on Dce 10, 1948 by 48:8 votes Consisted Preamble and 30 Articles
  20. 20. PREAMBLE “Recognition of inherent dignity and equal rights of all members of human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the World.”
  21. 21. CONTENTS PART I (Art.2 to 21) CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHT • Right to life, liberty and security • Equality before law and equal protection of law • Right to participate in Govt.
  22. 22. PART II (Art. 22 to 27) Economical and Social Right • Right to work and free choice of employment • Right to education • Right to social security
  23. 23. Limitations • Art 29 The Rights shall be provided subject to public order and morality No absolute rights No legally binding on States

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