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  1. 1. Benito Mussolini
  2. 2. Vital Statistics <ul><li>Born July 29, 1883 </li></ul><ul><li>Mother was teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Father was blacksmith </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Benito Juarez </li></ul><ul><li>Was a teacher, soldier, Socialist, editor, and Totalitarian Leader </li></ul>
  3. 3. Newspaper Editor
  4. 4. Italy of Mussolini’s Youth <ul><li>Italy consolidating into one country </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between nationalists & Church </li></ul><ul><li>Different political movements </li></ul>
  5. 5. Political “Deal- Makers” ‘ Dea - Makers”
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ Rome is our starting-point, and Rome is our goal. Rome is our ideal, and Rome is our myth. We are dreaming of a Roman Italy, full of life and intelligence, strong powerful, and disciplined. The immortal spirit of Rome has risen again in the Fascimus. Rome is our symbol, of Rome is our military organization, our courage, and our faith.” </li></ul><ul><li>-1922 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Centralization of Power <ul><li>1922- Invited to form a government by king </li></ul><ul><li>1925- Named Head of State </li></ul><ul><li>1929- Lateran Treaties with Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>1933- Held 7 of 14 Cabinet Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Corporate” Government </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fascistization - 1925 <ul><li>“Tomorrow, Italian and Fascist, rather like Italian and catholic, mean the same thing.” </li></ul><ul><li>King was largely ceremonial, but could replace Mussolini </li></ul><ul><li>Church accepted Mussolini, but got many concessions </li></ul>
  9. 9. Imperial Expansion- Creation of “ Mare Nostrum ” <ul><li>Re-colonization of Libya ~ 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Outlying Greek Islands - 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia - 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Albania - 1939 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Imperialist Propaganda
  11. 12. Imperialist Propaganda
  12. 13. Problems with Mussolini’s Government <ul><li>Had many roles, but relegated work to others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They did not have full powers, and things did not get done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Blame game” when things did not happen right </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Problems with Mussolini’s Compromise with Church <ul><li>Church protected interests well </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided support, but remained independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious education in Fascist curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholic Youth org. was only non-Fascist program allowed in Italy </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Problems with Mussolini’s War Plans <ul><li>Italian military ill-equipped for war </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini bound to Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Inept government could not supply food and products to either Italians or soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini relied on bluffing: Italy could “talk the talk,” but couldn’t “walk the walk” </li></ul>
  15. 16. How Did Mussolini Achieve and Maintain Power?
  16. 17. Blackshirts…
  17. 18. Balconies…
  18. 20. “Battles…”
  19. 21. “Battles”
  20. 22. Bilateral Agreements
  21. 23. Fin
  22. 24. Fin
  23. 25. Postscript <ul><li>Mussolini killed </li></ul><ul><li>Italy occupied by Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Royal Family exiled </li></ul><ul><li>(may be returning later this year) </li></ul><ul><li>Italy currently has a Parliamentary government </li></ul>