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  1. 1. By Ms.Marfe N.NiquePROSE
  2. 2. PROSEThe essay is a short literary composition in prose dealing with a single matter usually from a personal point of view. Thus, it is revelatory of the author’s state , opinions, prejudices, moods, and , in general, his personality. Essays may either be formal or informal but there are more specific subdivisions
  3. 3. Essay Fiction Prose Drama Non-fiction prose types Reflective Prose Allegory Divisions: Special types: Biography and essays Fable Autobiography Myths Legends Comedy Closet Drama Narrative or Prose romances Tragedy Tragicomedy Letters story essay Fairy Tales (Epistles),Diaries, Folk Tales Journals Myths and Legends Descriptive Prose satires Melodrama Problem plays Book review essay Biographical Novels Farce Comedy of Literary Criticism essay manners Nature essay Short Story History Play Comedia del l’ Scientific and Current arte Publications Critical Essay Novelettes Periodical essaysDidactic Essays
  4. 4. THE ESSAY Reflective Narrative or Descriptive essays story essay essayBiographical Nature Periodical essay essay Essays Critical Didactic Essay essays
  5. 5. THE ESSAY Reflective Essays  Narrative or story are serious and essay make use of an dignified and usually incident to illustrate an employ aphorisms, i.e., idea or a theme. wisdom couched in memorable sentences.
  6. 6. THE ESSAY Descriptive essay  Biographical essay has some narrative sketches life or elements as well as presents character color, vividness, and analysis. realistic portrayals.
  7. 7. THE ESSAY Nature essay  Critical Essay attempts to picture the includes biographical world of God’s creation criticism, literary and may do so in a criticism, and book graphic, pictorial vein reviews. It is a record of or a more thoughtful, an analytical mind philosophical manner. weighing the virtues and faults of a literary piece, for instance, which it fully understands.
  8. 8. THE ESSAY Periodical essays  Didactic essays are generally enforce a moral and, published in therefore, the tone is periodicals, hence, serious and didactic they are also called (instructive). journalistic.
  9. 9. FICTION FictionProse Prose Prose Novels Short Story NovelettesAllegory Romances SatiresFable Fairy > FabliauMyths TalesLegends Folk Tales Myths and Legends
  10. 10. FICTION Is a literary production of man’s imagination finding shape in stories of people or events.
  11. 11. FICTION Prose Allegory is a > Fable is a short prose form in which allegorical tale the characters, ideas, conveying a moral or and actions stand for principle of behavior. something else or for a The characters are system of ideas with usually animals talking meaning implied. like human beings but Concrete characters keeping their animals are personifications of traits. Often, the moral abstract ideas. is appended in the form of a proverb in the form of a proverb.
  12. 12. FICTION> Myths are traditional > Legends are stories of tales common to the some wonderful events members of a popularly believed to tribe,race,or nation have some historical usually involving the basis and passed down supernatural and through the ages. serving to explain natural phenomena or suggest a religious or moral truth.
  13. 13. FICTION Prose romances are > Fairy Tales, which make types of stories in which use of folklore motifs, some supernatural or commonplace magical events , expressions, and typical fantastic, and unrealistic, themes are those which occur. develop from stock characters such as cruel king, cruel stephmother,naughty sister, substituted bride , magic, supernatural changes, and restorations.
  14. 14. FICTION> Fairy tales, once the  Folk tales are part of strange element in folklore (traditions the situation is transmitted through accepted, fairy tales memory and practice assume a reality of rather than by the their own .Virtue is printage page.) rewarded and fairy tales always end happily.
  15. 15. FICTION A folk tales easily pass from language and spread all over the world; hence they are sometimes called “ migratory tales. “.
  16. 16. PROSE SATIRES Are stories in which human vices and follies are held up to ridicule. > Fabliau (Plural: Fabliaux) is a short, amusing tale often bawdy or obscene, cynically and slyly satirical directed against women, the clergy, and marriage. The humor arises from the plot, an intrigue, or practical joke told in a rapid succession of events that form a single episode. Among standard characters are the jealous, stupid husband, the braggart, and the unfaithful wife. Boccaccio’s Decameron contains brilliant illustrations of this type.
  17. 17. NOVELS  Are prose narratives on a large scale (book length) and can be divided into three types, fantasy,love,and adventure novels. They are further broken down into such varieties as: Epistolary detective religious Picaresque science-fiction sociological Gothic naturalistic romantic Utopian psychological sentimental Western stream-of- consciousness surrealisticThe novel is a dominant literary form at present, both in quality and quantity.
  18. 18. SHORT STORY Is a prose narrative of  Although we know the short limited length which must story as a genre that was have invented in the 19th century, characterization,unity,cum loosely speaking, the oldest ulative interest, climax, story in an Egyptian Tale, and a resolution. The Brothers , was already In a less exclusive sense, written from about 3, 200 short stories should B.C. include the earliest forms of short narratives-stories of gods and demons, anecdotes,fables,mythical tales, lives of saints (hagiography),parables, and folk tales.
  19. 19. NOVELETTES Are prose narratives that are intermediate between the short story and the novels. It is about 50 to 150 ordinary pages long, but no exact limits can be given as to length. It is more elaborate than a short story but can be read in a single sitting and can produce a single, concentrated effect. Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea (1952) is an excellent example of a novelette
  20. 20. PROSE DRAMA is a literary work written in  Comedy dialogue and intended for  Tragedy presentation by actors.  Melodrama The essence of drama is the make –believe by  Farce which an actor  History impersonates a character  Special Types: of the play. Dramas of any  Closet Drama period have their different  Tragicomedy sets of conventions and  Problem Plays the playgoer must be  Comedy of manners conscious of them. The  Comedia del l’ arte same divisions under poetic plays apply to prose drama:
  21. 21. SPECIAL TYPES OF PROSE DRAMA Closet drama which ,  Tragicomedy is a though written in combination of the dramatic form, is elements of tragedy intended for private and comedy reading rather than stage performance
  22. 22. SPECIAL TYPES OF PROSE DRAMA Problem plays are  Comedy of manners is neither comedies nor a type of play which tragedies but deal with satirizes the extreme of middle –class life fashion and manners- problems. the acquire follies of a highly sophisticated society.
  23. 23. SPECIAL TYPES OF PROSE DRAMA Comedia de l’ arte was a type of comedy developed in 16th –century Italy and its essential characteristics was that it was based on a ploy (scenario) outlined in advance, but the dialogue was improvised during performance. Characters who wore masks were stock types as the silly old man, the pedant, the lover,etc.
  24. 24. NON – FICTION PROSE TYPES: Biography and Autobiography Letters (Epistles), Diaries, Journals Book review Literary Criticism Scientific and Current Publications