In this chapter, teachers will be exposed to the variety of skills and strategies students struggle with when they are unable to understand what they read. Also included is an “if/then” list that provides information on what teachers can do to address specific learning gaps. The purpose of this activity in the workshop is to begin to expose participants to all the skills and strategies students need in order to become proficient readers. Throughout the workshop, participants will begin to build learning targets based on CCLS and data. This introductory activity is to begin to see possible student problems when reading so they are better prepared to look at CCLS and data.
Annotating" means underlining or highlighting key words and phrases—anything that strikes you as surprising or significant, or that raises questions—as well as making notes in the margins. When we respond to a text in this way, we not only force ourselves to pay close attention, but we also begin to think with the author about the evidence—the first step in moving from reader to writer.
Discussion Protocols Mary Ann Reilly December 2012 Based On: Preskill, Stephen (2009- 05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 1
Discussion Protocol: Think about the big ideas present in the fictional work you just read that relate to the theme of _______ .1. Along with 4 others, sit in a circle so that you see one another.2. No one may be interrupted while speaking.3. No one may speak out of turn in the circle.4. Each person is allowed only three minutes to speak about the topic.5. Each person must begin by paraphrasing the comments of the previous discussant.6. Each person, in all comments, must strive to show how his or her remarks relate to the comments of the previous discussant.7. After each discussant has had a turn to speak, the floor is opened for general reactions, and the previous ground rules are no longer in force.Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 2
Close Reading Process1. Read with a pencil in hand, and annotate the text (surprises, significance, questions, definitions for terms).2. Look for patterns in the things youve noticed about the text—repetitions, contradictions, similarities.3. Ask questions about the patterns youve noticed— especially how and why.4. Jot down a response to this question: What unexpected lesson did Loren Eiseley learn? 3
Snowballing:We are going to try something a little different today. It’s called “snowballing,” and it gives you a chance to think and talk a variety of configurations. Recall the question posed before: What unexpected lesson did Loren Eiseley learn?Begin this activity by gathering your thoughts on these questions in private reflection. Jot down some of these reflections if you wish.After five minutes of solitary thought, you will begin a dialogue on the questions with one other person.After another five minutes, you and your partner should join another pair to form a group of four. You will continue the discussion for ten minutes.Think about how your understanding changed as you discussed and listened to others. 4
Circle of Voices Individuals reflect on the discussion topic (1-3 minutes) Participants go round the circle in order - each person has up to 1 minute of uninterrupted air time to give their viewpoint on the topic. No interruptions are allowed. Move into free discussion with the ground rule that every comment offered must somehow refer back to a comment made by someone else in the opening circle of voices. This need NOT be agreement - it can be a disagreement, a question, an elaboration or extension, an illustration, and so on. Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 5
Structured Silence Every 15 minutes students write individually on 3x5 cards ONE of the following : most important point, most puzzling point, question they’d most like to discuss, something new they’ve learned. At the end of the reading period, cards are shuffled & responses read out by different students. Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 6
Conversational Moves Bring 3x5 cards to class with moves typed on each of them. Participants choose 1 of these cards randomly after sustained reading has concluded.EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC MOVES1. Ask a question or make a comment that shows you are interested in another’s comments2. Make a comment that underscores the link between 2 previous contributions3. Make a comment clearly building on what someone else has said - make this link explicit4. Make a summary observation on a recurring theme in the discussion5. Express appreciation for how another’s comments have helped your understanding6. Disagree with someone in a respectful way 7
Hatful of Quotes After Read Aloud Type out 5 to 6 provocative quotes from read aloud text on a 3x5 card (each quote will be on several cards) Put these in a hat & have students choose a card at random. Participants take turns (at their choosing) to respond to these quotes - or to earlier comments on these quotes. After Silent Reading Students briefly discuss any connections they made between the fictional books they read and the themes present in the read aloud. Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 8
Newsprint Dialogue Small groups put their deliberations on newsprint sheets - no reporter is chosen to report these out. Newsprint sheets are then posted around the room & blank sheets posted next to each sheet. Each participant takes a marker & wanders by herself around the room - she writes her questions, reactions, agreements etc. directly onto the sheets or on the blanks posted next to them. Groups reassemble at their postings to see what others have written. Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 9
Chalk Talk Teacher writes a question in the center of the board & circles it Whenever they wish students go to the board & write responses to question Others draw lines between responses to show connections/differences Teacher adds responses as needed Based on : Preskill, Stephen (2009-05-18). Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms. 10
Discussion Scoring SheetStudent Name ClassPositive/Productive Behavior Non Productive Behavior1. Offers his/her position on a topic. (1 point) 1. Does not pay attention. (-1 point)2. Makes a relevant comment. (1 point) 2. Distracts another. (-2 points)3. Uses evidence to support position. (3 points) 3. Offers irrelevant comment. (-1 point)4. Kindly points out contradictions when another person makes 4. Monopolizes conversation. (-3 points)irrelevant comment. (2 points)5. Develops an analogy. (3 points) 5. Produces personal verbal attack. (-3 points)6. Asks clarifying question. (1 point) Positive Points:7. Uses active listening (paraphrases what another has said Non Productive Points:before commenting). (3 points) Total Points: 11