biological control -save our world


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biological control -save our world

  1. 2. Characters of desirable bio control agents Presented by K.Ragunath
  2. 3. WHAT ARE BIO CONTROL AGENTS ? <ul><li>A system of controlling plant pests, nematodes and diseases without the use of chemicals, by employing </li></ul><ul><li>predators, </li></ul><ul><li>microbes, </li></ul><ul><li>parasites that feed upon them. </li></ul>
  3. 4. A M fungi Trichoderma spp Pseudomonas spp Azetobacter spp Bio control agents l k j m
  4. 5. A M fungi Pseudomonas spp Bacillus spp Trichoderma spp Pasteuria penetrans Azetobacter spp B C A for nematode Control l j m k h f
  5. 6.  Trichoderma spp <ul><li>The fungal genus Trichoderma contains species that have the potential to be of economic importance </li></ul><ul><li>Species in this genus are useful in the biological control of soilborne diseases (19) and tree decays. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species produce useful bio chemicals and antibiotics and others are involved in plant disease . </li></ul>
  6. 7. Evaluation of Trichoderma spp as biocontrol against nematode <ul><li>The implementation of Trichoderma in IPM can be achieved using a soil treatment which reduced amounts of fungicides </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma harzianum & T. lignorum isolates were tested for their nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica It is suggested that the main antinematode activity caused by </li></ul><ul><li>T. harzianum takes place in the soil and not within the roots. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Mycoparasitism Lytic enzyme chitinase Induced systemic resistance Antibiosis Trichodermin , dermadin, trichoviidin Competition Solubilization & sequestration of inorganic plant nutrients Mechanism of action k l m j f
  8. 9. Antagonistic fungus <ul><li>Many species of </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma viridae </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma harzianum </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma koningi </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma longibrachiatum </li></ul><ul><li>Trichoderma hamatum </li></ul>
  9. 10. Commercial form
  10. 11. Bacteria – P seudomonas fluorescens <ul><li>Members of the genus display the following defining characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>- Rod shaped </li></ul><ul><li>- Gram-negative </li></ul><ul><li>- One or more polar flagella, providing motility </li></ul><ul><li>- Aerobic, although some species have been found-to be facultative anaerobes </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. P. aeruginosa ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Non–spore forming </li></ul><ul><li>- Positive catalase test </li></ul>
  11. 12. BIO FILM FORMATION <ul><li>Slime production also contributes to surface-colonising biofilms which are difficult to remove from food preparation surfaces </li></ul>
  12. 13. MECHANISM OF ACTION <ul><li>Antibiotic-mediated suppression </li></ul><ul><li>-phenazines, tropolone, pyrrolnitrin </li></ul><ul><li>Siderophore – mediated supression </li></ul><ul><li>-produce fluorescent siderophores which link with supression ability </li></ul><ul><li>Induced systemic resistance </li></ul><ul><li>-activates multiple defence mechanism </li></ul>
  13. 14. Some keys <ul><li>APPLICATION: </li></ul><ul><li>- Soil-borne pathogens are controlled with the use of seed treatments or hopper-box applications and foliar pathogens by spray applications </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Storage conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>- Store in a cool, dry place in a sealed container </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND NON-TARGET TOXICITY: </li></ul><ul><li>- P. fluorescens . occurs widely in nature and is not expected to have any adverse effects on non-target organisms. </li></ul>
  14. 15. P. fluorescence
  15. 16. Pasteuria penetrans <ul><li>Very effective against root knot nematodes in many crops. </li></ul><ul><li>The lifecycle has four stages </li></ul><ul><li>-spore formation </li></ul><ul><li>-vegetative growth </li></ul><ul><li>-fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>-sporogenesis </li></ul>
  16. 17. characters <ul><li>Pasteuria penetrans and related forms are considered as potential biological control agents of phytoparasitic nematodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Host adhesion is one of the most critical steps in the life-cycle of Pasteuria . </li></ul><ul><li>The endospores are released in soil by decaying hosts </li></ul><ul><li>The endospore represents the parasite durable stage as well as the infective propagule responsible for transmission. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Endospore formation <ul><li>Pasteuria endospore from Helicotylenchus lobus </li></ul><ul><li>Pasteuria endospores </li></ul><ul><li>adhering to the cuticle </li></ul><ul><li>of Hoplolaimus galeatus </li></ul>
  18. 19. AM Arbuscular Mycorrhizae <ul><li>A symbiotic relationship with legumious plants. </li></ul><ul><li>The VAM fungi penetrate the living cells of plants without harming them, and form the typical organs, such as vesicles and arbuscles, in the root . </li></ul><ul><li>VAM fungi-infected plants have high potential of resistance to soil environmental stresses. </li></ul>
  19. 20. ROLE <ul><li>The known functions of VAM fungi on plants are that </li></ul><ul><li>1) the absorption of minerals, especially P, is promoted, </li></ul><ul><li>2) growth is stimulated, </li></ul><ul><li>3) high quality of fruits is produced every year, </li></ul><ul><li>4) resistance to environmental stresses is enhanced, and </li></ul><ul><li>5) resistance to soil disease is enhanced </li></ul>
  20. 21. CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>While using care for </li></ul><ul><li>Cut down the amount of agrochemicals and chemical fertilizers applied. </li></ul><ul><li>Use fermented organic matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Use soil conditioners, such as charcoal and zeolite. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the effectiveness of grasses </li></ul><ul><li>. Improve soil pH and aeration. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Commercial form
  22. 23. VAM fungi
  23. 24. Characters of desirable bio control agents <ul><li>An desirable bio control agents should have following characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>It should not be pathogenic to plants, animals, human beings and microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><li>It should have broad spectrum of activity in controlling many types of diseases and must be genetically stable. </li></ul><ul><li>It should have fast growth and sporulation </li></ul><ul><li>It must be cultured under artificial media </li></ul>
  24. 25. Contd ………. <ul><li>The innoculam must be capable of abundant production using conventional methods such as liquid fermentation and withstanding term storage until application </li></ul><ul><li>It should be amenable for inexpensive mass multiplication and economically viable. </li></ul><ul><li>It should have long shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>It must be efficacious under different environmental conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be compatable with bio fertilizers </li></ul>
  25. 26. Contd…. <ul><li>It have host susceptibility to the action by the seed treating chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>It should not be toxic to beneficial organisms in or on the target area. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be easily formulated and method of application must be convenient and compatible with common cultural practices. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Contd… <ul><li>It should easily establish in the soil with high persistence and survival capacity </li></ul><ul><li>It should be biologically competitive with microorganisms </li></ul>
  27. 28. REFERENCE <ul><li> htm </li></ul><ul><li>Biological control of crop diseases </li></ul><ul><li>- D. Dinakaran, G.Arjunan, G.Karthikeyan. </li></ul><ul><li>www.i bio biocontrol </li></ul><ul><li>nematode - </li></ul><ul><li> biocontrol /pathogens/ nematodes .html </li></ul>