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Governance arrangements, vulnerability and forest users in the Cameroon savannah


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Governance arrangements, vulnerability and forest users in the Cameroon savannah. Ingram tenure livelihoods vulnerability cameroon savanna Central African Forests conference sept 2013

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Governance arrangements, vulnerability and forest users in the Cameroon savannah

  1. 1. Governance arrangements, vulnerability and forest users in the Cameroon savannah Central African Forests and Institutions (CAFI) conference Paris, September 20-21 2013 Session: Climate change and forests Verina Ingram THINKING beyond the canopy THINKING beyond the canopy
  2. 2. Aim Examine how beekeepers use and perceive the forest, their vulnerabilities and pressures, and the individual and collective (governance) solutions used to secure their livelihoods. THINKING beyond the canopy
  3. 3. Lit. review Background Field work • Rapid assessment Key informant interviews • Production zone selection – stakeholder interviews • Botanic assessment - forage species • Observation - apiculture activities • Structured interviews 375 actors, 40 processors, 10 villages & 6 market surveys VCA PAR data collection • Participatory action research: problem analysis, market, participatorily strategic plans • Capacity building events: support for group organisation • Market price tracking (1-3 years) Analysis • Data analysis SPSS and Excel, SWOT • Preliminary findings verified in meetings & peer cross-checked • Scientific • Articles & book chapter, value chain maps, reports (VCA, harvest impacts, botanic Outputs assessments, baseline studies) • Public 2012 • Policy brief, product sheet, technical datasheet, guidelines for sustainable NTFP enterprises THINKING beyond the canopy Methodology 2004 • Literature review – chains, actors, production zones, governance arrangements
  4. 4. Methods used • Built on existing studies of, and with, value chain actors • Situational analysis & snowballing to determine chain, activities and actors • Mix of qualitative and quantitative methods • Participatory action research enabled understanding of context e.g. governance, use, history of chain THINKING beyond the canopy
  5. 5. Results Beekeeper’s uses of the forest & outcomes • Beekeeping an older, married, low-educated, local Gbaya male activity – long tradition • 68% households in Djerem involved in beekeeping • 48% annual average h.h. income (281,000 FCFA ,433 US$) • 87% beekeepers apiculture income 10,000 - 100,000 FCFA (111 to 223 US$) • Alongside subsistence farming & livestock, 45% ≥ 1 income source, 10% 6 sources • persistent activity (58% >10 years, 23% >20 years) • 86% harvest sold, 10% consumed, 4% as gifts • Physical & risky activity: 10 km walk, using fire, heavy lifting • Low value adding 28% also extract wax, 7% propolis • 99% make traditional hives of local materials • 20% member of association, individual sales THINKING beyond the canopy
  6. 6. Results • • • • • • • • Perceptions of the forest Vast Provider of forest products Source of dependence Beekeepers are users (not conservators) Source of fertility (gallery forests for maize) Forest’s beauty, magic and spiritualism Ripe for appropriation (urbanisation and agriculture) Apiculture and its trade not responsible for degradation of forest resources THINKING beyond the canopy
  7. 7. Results Forest governance • Governance arrangements of whole chain- fragmented • Low intensity, multiple use, overlapping customary rights • Open access for most forest resources • Community appropriation of valuable resources e.g. bamboo • No initial statutory regulation of access to markets • Statutory void concerning rights and rules to commercialise apiculture products • Voluntary arrangements to control market - organic and ethical trade certifcaiton, collective action & government projects THINKING beyond the canopy
  8. 8. Results Livelihood vulnerabilities and pressures 1. Human induced changes such as increasing population pressure & infrastructure projects (+ & -) • → deforestation & forest degradation • → competing claims for forest resources (fuelwood, kofia, raffia, bamboo) & uses (water, beekeeping, grazing, fertile river valleys) 2. Increasing climate changes & variability → impacting forage flowering, bush fires & pests 3. Persistent poverty with low levels of capital and (ability to) professionalise, dependence upon natural capital → few alternatives and low enabling environment and agents Multiple pressures impacting reliability, quantity and quality of apiculture products → apiculture income & livelihood security THINKING beyond the canopy
  9. 9. Results Component Forest plant & animal community & biodiversity Forest ecosystem services Human well-being Institutions Individual and collective adaptive & mitigative solutions to secure livelihoods Potential adaptive response options Silviculture Responses by beekeepers and chain actors Regeneration, planting bamboo and raffia, planting melliferous agroforestry tree species Habitat or species preservation (protected Adapted hive styles, hunting of pests (African palm areas, conservation and restoration) civet). Water management measures, soil and Informal watershed and habitat protection of forest vegetation protection, sustainable farming areas for beekeeping, bamboo and raffia grove systems, climate smart and good agricultural protection, regulation of access to bamboo & raffia practices groves, tree planting, tenure claims on forest areas by beekeepers. Measures to decrease dependence on forest Professionalization of beekeeping and marketing, ecosystem goods and services or increase collective action and formalisation of groups, resilience of forest ecosystems, valuing increased hives, increased commodification hive economic ecosystem goods and services, products, increased commercialisation, adding-value recognition for food security and poverty to hive products, increased product range, expansion alleviation. to new markets and consumers, selling price increase, expansion of business model to other area in Cameroon. institutional responses to climate change New chain-integrated social enterprises, voluntary and poverty mitigation , implementation of Soil Association organic and fair trade certification, international policies, multilevel The Body Shop community trade certification , government, private sector & CSO networks, geographic origin certification(?), CFs(?), develop EU knowledge transfer and integration, revised export rules & HMRS, new chain platforms & pro-poor regulations, PES. government supported projects, introduction standards and regulations, tenure claims on forest by THINKING beyond the canopy beekeepers .
  10. 10. Recommendations for policy & practice 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Build on customary rules for local management Consistency of regulations Make top-down planning more participatory Acknowledge NTFP values in policy & support Assess resource & develop harvesting guidelines Stimulate chain platforms ‘interprofessions Local community land tenure and resource rights rationalised Fuse customary and statutory frameworks Enact implementing texts for the Forest law Dissemination of forest law & its revisions to users Scope of forestry law better defined Rationalise fiscal regime Improve capacity of state to enforce regulations State outreach to actors at beginning of chain Focus support of most vulnerable and key chain actors THINKING beyond the canopy
  11. 11. Maintaining a vibrant apiculture sector is important in diversifying livelihoods, providing subsistence and cash revenues and mitigating vulnerability Conclusions • No one institutional design or governance arrangement that lead to sustainable livelihood wins-wins. • Pragmatism needed about the role of forest products - such as apiculture - in poverty alleviation and reconciling global environmental values with local livelihood needs. • Revisions to the Cameroonian regulatory framework offer hope that formal regulations take account of other arrangements and produce a more complementary mix reflecting the reality of trade from the forest to urban areas nationally, regionally in Central Africa and globally - with positive implications for forest beekeepers THINKING beyond the canopy
  12. 12. Merci ! Thanks to all interviewees especially the beekeepers, MINEPIA, MINFOF, Guiding Hope, Denis Sonwa, Stephanie Tangkeu, Han van Dijk and Purabi Bose Aminatou Hamoa Quality Assurance officer & Trainer – Guiding Hope organic apiculture enterprise, Cameroon Contact: Verina Ingram THINKING beyond the canopy