DFID PakistanHumanitarian UnitUpdate on shelter projectsin Southern SindhJune, 2012 Leila Bheel, mother of 8 and builder of her home in Tando Allah Yar district. She has received all the materials for a safe roof, from HANDS, DFID’s local partner.
In March, 2012, parts of district Sangar, Sindh, looked like this, 7 months after monsoon rains.
3 months on it looked like this, the water has receded, most houses have simply dissolved.The shelter here is an emergency shelter kit that can be used as a roofing kit when the family rebuilds their walls.
• Inside the shelter• £58 per unit• Used as temporary shelter• Later as roof kit• Note beam for future roof structure• Double the value of a tent• And half the price
What are the key challenges?• Emergency shelter for the first weeks• Then people return to villages and start to rebuild – though assets lost and little cash• Millions are affected and donor funds limited• We need to do “more for less” (good VfM)• New houses must be flood-resistant• And try to do no harm! (to environment, community and their culture)
First: an overview of what is normally done by humanitarian actors as a shelter responseLarge tent, £130 - £180 range. Limited adaptability– can’t be used to reconstruct the home. Andmore than TWICE the price.
£18 / Unit Cheap but not very good (not much protection and dignity)
A basic or medium sized tent. Around £100 / unit – withoutblankets or light. So, at least half the number of people can be reached with the same money.
In contrast – a DFID / IOM designed family shelter£60 / family – including a solar light
• HANDS, local NGO & IOM (International Org)• We adapted emergency kits into roofing kits• C. £58 / kit• Family rebuilds walls• Effectively transitional shelter• Walls can be reinforced to be DRR later
Some great storiesKiela, mother and housebuilderNow has a safe roofHANDS phase 2 will thensecure her wallsMeaning she will have aDRR houseWe need to bring outthese good stories!
Keila outside her window.Note depth of wall, goodthermal mass and naturalcooling!
Solar light – these cost about 600 PKR (£5) and save people between 300 and 600PKR per month. Light is critical for protection, to see snakes (who are also displacedin floods and come into settlements), for education, etc. They also don’t cause fires– a constant risk with kerosene or candles.
Illumination – costing around $7.50, distributed through IOM and HANDS, 2011 response. (these shown in previous slide)Toughstuff, cost around $15,but also can charge mobilephones, distributed throughCONCERN and partners, 2010response.
Mustafa, project manager forHANDS, discussing options tofurther reinforce the walls sothis house will be more floodresistant.
Another home restored – with just £58, which included this solar light,saving the family around £3 a month, around 15% of her monthly income
In Tando Mohammed Khan district, where the wholecommunity worked to rebuild each others houses. Bythemselves, for no payment except their own motivation.DFID / HANDS supplied the roofing materials
Targeting those most vulnerable – elderly, widows, single headed households prioritised
CBOs and village planning – for disaster preparedness, protection and planning
Rebuilding traditional houses –resistant to future floods
Cost: 20,000 PKR (£140) per house80% cheaper than many other models
Damage caused by 2011 floodingSlowly collapsing as wood in the walls has been compromised
Local roundhouses (chora) are prevelant in many parts of Southern Sindh.These show how local reeds are used to build the walls, then mud and lime plaster added later.
One of IOM’s local NGO partners now training people in community about safereconstruction methods – which maintain vernacular design but introduce criticaldesign elements to make the houses resistant to future floods
Lime is a traditional building material that has been displaced by cement in recent decades. Itis far better to combine with earth and provides a water resistant wall while preserving andwood or biomass that is used inside the wall. IOM teams will do extensive training on the useof lime over the next 9 months, including vital health and safety measures.
Hearing from the community on their perspectives, vision andpriorities. Community organisations are formed to receive thetraining and organise the financing of the reconstruction process
IOM and HANDS select elected focal points in the communities who will receive money intheir bank accounts on behalf of all the beneficiaries. Money is advanced in three phases,each requiring the previous phase to have been completed so the funds are conditional onprogress by the whole community. This way the community manage their ownreconstruction.
A completed house following Heritage Foundation / IOM designs. The wall isfinished with a mud&lime render, while the roof now has extended eaves toprotect the top of the wall. People have taken so much pride in their new housesthey have started decorating them with local artwork!
Heritage Foundation is DFID/IOM’s local technical design and training partner. Here theyhave built a series of building components to help with training of local people andorganisations, showing them how to build flood resistant buildings with natural materials.
Yasmeen Lari, head of Heritage Foundation explaining the different components
An example of bamboo structure for a twin-pitch roof. This avoids the use of local trees – a non-renewable source of building material, causing serious environmental damageA cross-section of a safe foundation madefrom earth and lime, with a projected “toe”to give further durability in case of flooding
The Ring BeamLocal people learning to make aring beam of bamboo and lime- concrete.
An extended eave, built by local people during Heritage Foundation training. This will prevent rain flooding into the top of the wall. The ring beam runs below these bamboo girders, now out of site, covered in earth plaster
Stronger roofs – safer roofsIn time of flooding people can use these as a refuge
A traditional Sindhi round-house, built on araised platform by Heritage Foundation as amodel. Lime mud render for water-resistance.
Traditional grass thatch on top forinsulation and increased rain protection
Reduced Environmental Impact• We’re trying to measure the impact to global and local environment• Life cycle analysis & embodied energy• University of Bath, UK: Inventory of Carbon and Energy• Measures in MJ/Kg and CO2 / kg
ExamplesMaterial Mj / Kg CO2 kg / kgSteel (typical / recycled) 24.4 0.482Cement 4.6 0.22Fired bricks 3 0.060Limestone 0.85 -Timber (average) 8.5 0.125CGI (iron sheet) 39 0.7Source: University of Bath, Embodied energy and carbon inConstruction materials (2008)
Reduced Carbon Emissions• For only 20,000 one room shelters• Usually (e.g. post 2010-reconstruction) 5,000 bricks per house procured – would equal 100m bricks for the 20,000 houses• Earth and lime chosen as alternative• Estimated environmental saving: 57,000 tonnes CO2 and 5,600 acres deforestation avoided.
Steel for roof structures• One beam weighs 27kg• 2 beams per house = 54kg• 54 x 0.48 kg CO2 = 25.92 kg CO2 / house• If target is 20,000 houses = 518,000 Tonnes of CO2 to atmosphere (not emitted)• We need further (independent) research to validate these estimates• Alternatives exist – such as composite bamboo beams
FAO: 23,000 families get sunflower inputs & kitchen gardens and trainingThis will soon be increased to over 60,000 kitchen gardens and thousands offodder trees (including moringa trees)
Map showing DFID-funded projects at union council level;legend at top right explains what each bar represents.
HANDS-built District Disaster Response CentresIn collaboration with Relief Department, SindhWarehousing, coordination centre,accommodation, office space, communicationscentre.
Community CentreRefuge in times of floodCommunity literacy centreCafé and libraryResource centreTraining centreDemonstration examplesPaid by Heritage Foundation
Overall targets post 2011 floods• 50,000 families get help to build a flood resistant one room shelter (home)• Almost 30,000 families get a roofing kit• 30,000 families receive emergency shelter/NFI packages• 87,000 families receive horticulture or agriculture support• 16,000 families receive moringa and other fodder trees = long term fodder and food supply