Water, Sanitation and HygieneDFID Flood response, 2010 - 2011
Basic pit latrine, about 5 foot deep. Note brick and mud mortar base for the slab to siteon to prevent movement. The super-structure (above ground) bit here made of localthatch and round-wood. Cheap and low environmental impact. Cost per unit: £60Implemented by LHDP, Oxfam’s local partner in Thatta, Sindh
The traditional sanitation solution: “Open defecation”. This bush on right on edge of village is where women and kids would usually come to squat. Faeces would be cleaned away. Men would go out a bit further. In both cases privacy is compromised and hygiene low. Shifting from this practice, however, can take time. New latrine in background.
Latrine block: bricks and cement mortar. Flood resistant. Septic tank installed behind. Very durable and accepted by community who preferred this approach. NGO: Root Works (local partner of Concern International) Cost per unit: 25,000 Rps (£185)
Another “advanced” latrine block. Likely to survive another flood – though themortar between bricks is mud – not cement based – so far less durable.More expensive than a pit latrine? Yes, but, it will last longer, won’t pollute thelocal ground water so much and serves multiple households.
View from the back of the same“pour flush” latrine block. The pitshown here will be lined withbricks and concrete to preventseepage into the ground wherethere is a high water table. Anoverflow pipe will allow excessfluids out into a separatedrainage soak away. A rathercomplex system in a village madeof earth/mud brick houses.Before the floods this village hadno latrine at all. The question toask here is why go from nothingto such an advanced andexpensive system?Cost: £450 / unit
Pour flush latrine by RDF, local NGO partner of CARE in Dadu. Septic tank underconstruction on right. Cost: £120 per unit. This is the value of just over 3 pit latrineswhich will not last as long as these. So are these more cost effective over the longerterm? Arguably so, if they are accessed by at least three households.
A completed RDF latrine block, septic tank underground, out of view. Questions: pourflush will need water for every use, where’s the local water source, is it realistic thatpeople will bring water with them every time? (if they don’t it will block up). Secondly,where will the overflow from septic tank go? How to prevent sewage water pond buildingup, or will the outflow go into that standing water behind the latrine?
Typical latrine model built by humanitarian organisations in camps for displacedpeople or refugees. Cheap plastic won’t last long. Milled timber for structureexpensive and probable high environmental impact. Note ceramic slab on left,plastic on right. Cost around £32/unit.
A good example of how NOT to do latrines in communities. Agency not named,and it was not UNICEF despite their plastic being used. Why bad? a) plastic willcorrode in the sun within months, b) in middle of village, not appropriate – noprivacy, should be located near some houses, more discreetly. Local thatch ormud materials for walls would be better. Cost per unit around £35
Laundry pad, recently built away into gravel pit (in background). Supposedly to Laundry pad with soak by OXFAM/ LHDP. enhance hygiene and reduce workload for women. Cost £200 / unit. Is this apriority ? Can this kind of expense be justified when people need houses first?
Another laundry pad, this time by Rootworks (partner of Concern). Smaller (so lessexpensive) and with seating which is a nice addition. Clearly well used.Cost : £81 / unit
Hand pump with concrete “apron” which captures residual water. In this case it iscaptured in a pipe which ends up in an animal water trough – shown in thebackground. This is a clever use of waste water from wells, which can otherwisestay in muddy puddles around the pump.Cost for pump, borehole and water trough: £266
Another excellent use of residual water froma local water pump in Punjab, restored by thelocal community. Here the water is directed toa small vegetable garden for irrigation at anytime. (However without shade cover andmulch over soil, evaporation will exceed 80%)
Local hand-pumpwithout concrete“apron”. Potentialhere forcontamination of thewell and a muddymess around the wellwhich can also be apossible mosquitohatching zone.
Hand-pump construction by Oxfam and SAFCO in Thatta, Sindh. Communityinvolvement is critical for site selection, maintenance and design of apron (and use ofresidual water around pump). Note quality of the bore hole lining pipe used: quality steelinstead of cheap plastic. Cost: £137 / installed handpump.
Hygiene promotion is about engaging the imagination of people, children in particular inways of preventing disease through better hygiene practices. Oxfam are particularlygood in this field – working through local organisations who adopt local music and
The hand washing song: every finger gets a scrub! another hygienepromotion session with a splash of creativity.