Environment and Shelter post-disaster A presentation of optionsfor the Shelter Meeting May 2012 Geneva Magnus Wolfe Murray Humanitarian Advisor, DFID-Pakistan
SummaryEnvironmental impact of constructionAlternative and low-impact alternativesEnergy and environmentExamples from DFID-funded shelter workin Pakistan
Environmental impactModern construction materials have a highenvironmental impactCement is very energy intensive in production(e.g.1 tonne cement = 1 tonne CO2 emissions)Brick production can be very resource-intensiveWe should measure (and attempt to mitigate)impact of shelterOr we will increase community vulnerability tofuture climate disasters (Do No Harm)
DFID position on environmentClimate change and Environment toppriorities for UK GovtDFID seeking innovative approaches todeliver on targets & reduce env.impactEngaged with BREEAM as observersSoon to open Global Resilience ActionProgramme for research and evidenceContact: Brenda Coughlan on email@example.com
Environmental Impact Assessment: For 100,000 One Room Shelters post 2010 flooding (assuming use of Punjab brick kilns) Bricks Needed for One House: 5500 Total Bricks Required: 550 million Total Kilns Required: 106 kilns for one year Deforestation: 50,770 Acres w/o trees for 10 Yrs o CO2 Emissions: 316,470 tons of CO2 Carbon Credits Admissible: USD $ 4.75 million o Dioxins: 234 gms 5
Local and Global Emissions total brick production in PakistanCO2 Emissions : 37.4 million Tonnes Dioxins : 425.88 nanogramme / brick Equal to: 40m Pakistanis CO2 / year 9 million cars CO2 / year 6
Social impact bricks in Pakistan (Should we ignore this element?) Bonded Labour Child Labour7
Ecological capitalWhat value do we attach to local ecology?How can this be measured?Do your building materials damage orrestore the local and global environment?Do alternatives exist that offer lowerimpact?Do you have the tools to measure reducedimpact?
Embodied energyA means to measure impact of materialsLife cycle analysisUniversity of Bath, UK: Inventory ofCarbon and EnergyMeasures in MJ/Kg and CO2 / kgDoes not show local level impacts, suchas deforestation
ExamplesMaterial Mj / Kg CO2 kg / kgSteel (typical / recycled) 24.4 0.482Cement 4.6 0.22Fired bricks 3 0.060Limestone 0.85 -Timber (average) 8.5 0.125CGI (iron sheet) 39 0.7Source: University of Bath, Embodied energy and carbon inConstruction materials (2008)
Applied to a project in PakistanPost-2011 flooding, HANDS (local NGO)funded for 20,000 one room sheltersUsually (e.g. post 2010-reconstruction)5,000 bricks per house procured wouldequal 100m bricks for the 20,000 housesEarth and lime chosen as alternativeEstimated environmental saving: 57,000tonnes CO2 and 5,600 acres deforestationavoided.
Steel for roof structuresOne beam weighs 27kg2 beams per house = 54kg54 x 0.48 kg CO2 = 25.92 kg CO2 / houseIf target is 10,000 houses = 259,000Tonnes of CO2 to atmosphereResearch and elaborate these concerns inproposalsMany better alternatives already exist
What impact for DRR element?Critical question for flood / disaster zonesBrick, cement mortar is effectiveMud & Lime correctly applied can workthough much tech training neededAnd offer much better thermal comfortVernacular design & culture can berespected
A traditional Sindhi round-house, built on a raised platform by Heritage Foundation as a training model. Lime mud render for water- resistance.Examples from DFID-funded work with IOMand Heritage Foundation, Sindh, 2012Target: 7,500 one room shelters
The thatched roof has yet to be completed. Already it feels cool inside.Structural engineers approved thedesign which is clearly robust. Andcheaper than the square houses
The building is raisedplaced on a platform ofearth and mud forincreased flood protection.This building is areproduction of vernaculardesign, with specificimprovements to make itmore resilient to futurefloods.
The Ring Beam For flat roofs: alternativesto steel beams compound bamboo (a renewable material). Note extended eaves to protect walls and a ring beam of bamboo and lime-concrete.
Lime-rich earth mix increases durability and water-resistance to wall Especially at the base where standing water can weaken earthen walls Lime bonds with the clay in earth much better than cement increasingly hard and more resilient over time - so small cracks in surfaceKarachi University Architecture studentexplains the methods and rationale of lime use
These roofs are far stronger than typical roofs made from steel girders and bamboo poles (partially because of the shorter distances between each girder & rafter). store stuff, etc.).
A completed shelter with mud-lime water-resistant render. The roof canhold up to 20 people, and the walls are protected by extended eaves.
Earth Bag Construction - GAZABlockade on building materials forced innovativeapproachesEarth bags offer excellent thermal comfort andhuge reduction in cost and environmental impact
Vaulted earthen roofs SahelSource: La Voute Nubienne www.lavoutenubienne.org
The problem: deforestation from use of timber in roof structureAs wood became more scarce, peopletimber and CGI sheets.No insulation = very uncomfortable andunhealthyImported materials = high cost
NGO La Voute Nubbiene brings design from East Africa Trains local masons Challenges established construction industry normsValue for Money: 90% cheaper Better suited to climate More healthy indoor environment Reduces local ecological damage= Good Value for Money
Compressed Stabilised Earth Blocks (Non-fired bricks, 7% cement or lime added) TGA27 Techno Green Associates
Value for Money (for DfID)Low unit cost with high qualityIs it accessible, appropriate, well targetted,relevant, done on time, fit to purpose?Acceptable transaction, support andoverhead costsDoes the investment make sense? (for thebeneficiary and the taxpayer?)Triple bottom line accounting:economics, social, environment