Integrated recovery & low-carbon reconstruction - and update from Pakistan


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An update of our / DFID's shelter and WASH projects in Northern Sindh. This time with a calculation of carbon dioxide emissions reductions (!)

And all about building with lime..

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Integrated recovery & low-carbon reconstruction - and update from Pakistan

  1. 1. How humanitarian response can address key vulnerabilities, innovate, showcase best Value for Money; and help people adapt to changing climates The Pakistan experience. Magnus Wolfe Murray
  2. 2. • Shelter “roofing” kit – with steel beam • Water filter: multiple years of use (vs. aquatabs, etc.) • Solar light x 1 @ £5.00 each Link immediate relief to recovery – resilience continuum – wherever possible
  3. 3. Upon return, most families have used this roofing kit a “second time” to cover temporary shelters (that are NOT flood resistant). Now these same materials will be used a third time to cover a durable flood-resistant home.
  4. 4. A roofing kit by Local NGO HANDS being used as to build a quite permanent-looking shelter. The family built the walls themselves using vernacular technology (earthen bricks and mud plaster).
  5. 5. And used again for the 3rd time For a Flood-Resistant Shelter
  6. 6. Cost: Emergency: £60 / family Robust shelter: £130 Admin, etc.: £15 Total: £205 / family The alternative: Emergency only: £60 / family – every year assuming climate change drives extreme weather events.
  7. 7. 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 14,000,000 16,000,000 18,000,000 Affected Population Comparison across humanitarian crises
  8. 8. Large tent, £130 - £180 range. Limited adaptability – can’t be used to reconstruct the home. And expensive! An overview of “conventional” response
  9. 9. £18 / Unit Cheap but not very good (not much protection and dignity)
  10. 10. Cheaper tent (£100)
  11. 11. In contrast – a DFID / IOM designed family shelter £60 / family – including a solar light
  12. 12. Whole families: better protection, enhanced dignity
  13. 13. The “Roofing Kit” idea • £58 per unit • Used as temporary shelter • Later to build a roof • Double the value of a tent • And half the price
  14. 14. Solar lights
  15. 15. OK but what does it mean? Research: Protection for women? Economic savings? Potential for small businesses? Ref. Grameen Shahkti - Bangladesh
  16. 16. good thick Walls (better for keeping the house cool)
  17. 17. Many villages built these “chora” structures, which seem to cope with the heat much better (hot air rises and escapes through the small gaps in the thatch) while the steep roof ensures water flows away quickly in the rains.
  18. 18. “I am illiterate – therefore my daughter has a right to an education” (!!!) • Community development organisations (CBOs) Key for Social Capital and future development • A well built structure, large enough to fit 50 people during this meeting. • External temperature: 42 degrees • Internal temperature: 36 degrees
  19. 19. A quick introduction to Lime • An ancient building material that could be the key to flood resistant housing in Pakistan
  20. 20. Hydraulic lime can be poured directly into the foundation trenches and used to reinforce the lower parts of walls, as shown.
  21. 21. Lime pits are built to allow lime rocks to slake (soak) properly before being used with local earth and sand to create flood-resistant plasters and renders. One person is elected by the community to run these pits and manage the process.
  22. 22. Walls after 4 – 5 days heavy rain, still in good condition
  23. 23. The ring-beam as designed by Heritage Foundation, installed by IOM’s partner NGO, SEWA. This is a lime- based concrete, using gravel bought in the local market; steel bolts are sunk into the walls to connect with the bamboo girders that will act as roof beams – making roof and wall an integrated structure. Note that a piece of split bamboo replaces the conventional use of reinforced iron bar.
  24. 24. Four pieces of bamboo are wired together to create a beam spanning the 4m room. Five such beams are used in total. The ring beam distributes their weight to avoid point loading. Note the massive 18” (50cm) walls which reinforced with lime based plaster should be virtually indestructible.
  25. 25. Yasmeen Lari, head of Heritage Foundation explaining the different components
  26. 26. A traditional Sindhi round-house, built on a raised platform by Heritage Foundation as a training model. Lime mud render for water- resistance. Examples from DFID-funded work with IOM and Heritage Foundation, Sindh, 2012 Target: 17,500 one room shelters
  27. 27. View from inside the chora structure. These young men have now learned how to build flood resistant structures like these – knowledge that could stay with them all their lives.
  28. 28. Local and Global Emissions – total brick production in Pakistan Dioxins : 425.88 nanogramme / brick 32 CO2 Emissions : 37.4 million Tonnes Equal to: • 40m Pakistanis CO2 / year • 9 million cars CO2 / year
  29. 29. Social impact – bricks in Pakistan (Should we ignore this element?) 33 Child LabourBonded Labour
  30. 30. Table 1: Conventional construction materials and practice Item Required amount per house (KG) quantity per house CO2e (Kg) emissions per Kg / brick CO2e (Tonnes) emissions per House Target no Houses Amount for 50,000 houses (CO2 Tonnes) Fired bricks (per brick figure - based on 0.23 CO2e per kg n/a 5,500 0.55 3.03 50,000 151,250 Cement (Average CEM I Portland Cement 94% clinker) 600 600 0.95 0.57 50,000 28,500 Steel (Bar & rod 'Rest of World' average recycled content value) 54 54 1.95 0.11 50,000 5,265 Total Tonnes of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions 185,015
  31. 31. Table 2: Environmental Building Systems - as adopted by DFID & HANDS/IOM Item (and items being replaced) Required amount per house (KG) quantity per house CO2 (Kg) emission per Kg / brick CO2 (Tonnes) emission per House Target no Houses Amount for 50,000 houses (CO2 Tonnes) Fired bricks used for 20% of project only 5,500 0.55 3.025 10,000 12,100 Lime - in place of Cement (CO2e reduced by 70% as biomass based - see below) 50 0.234 0.0117 50,000 585 Steel: one beam instead of two procured 26 1.95 0.0507 50,000 2535 Total 15,220 Difference and saving in tonnes of CO2: 169,795 Source: University of Bath, Embodied energy and carbon in Construction materials (2008) Available at:
  32. 32. VfM • Lower cost = £50m saved • Allowed for much greater coverage • Low cost = easier to replicate for poor people • RED supporting evidence study for replication and publication of guide
  33. 33. Lessons learned • Main objective: flood resilience • Environment impact: let’s not make it worse • Low cost = replicable • LIME: community based training AT SCALE • 100,000 safe houses at less cost than the post- flood cash transfer programme. Value? • Knowledge management (Humanitarian Library)
  34. 34. WASH in Emergency: Quick and Effective But at what cost ? Cost Environment Ecology Water
  35. 35. After 6 months in the Sindhi sun… $90 / unit Note: this picture is replicated across thousands of villages where similar latrines built. Lesson: we can do better than this!
  36. 36. Structure alternatives – Earth Bags?
  37. 37. In May 2012 HANDS (local NGO based in Sindh) – built this earth-bag latrine to test the idea. Total cost including slab and door: £33 / $50 / 5000 PKR
  38. 38. Alternative slab design. Liberia, 2003. These cost $5 / unit (compared to $35 / unit of plastic slabs). A viable alternative?
  39. 39. • DOME shaped slab – no need for iron or mesh. • Can be moved when pit is full and re-used • Lid section placed on top prevents flies, smells, etc. • Very sturdy to stand on – no wobbles like the plastic slab
  40. 40. The other system: Pour Flush & Septic Tank Latrines. Copes better with heavy water use. U-bend in slab means less smell. More costly: Cost per unit: $275 (25,000 Rps)
  41. 41. But there are problems… Septic Tanks will fill up. Effective run-off design needed – and rarely incorporated
  42. 42. Poorly designed overflow from septic tanks A common sight all over Pakistan A serious public health problem has been created, not resolved.
  43. 43. There are alternatives! For example: constructed wetlands
  44. 44. Biogas plant  A sectional view of a fixed dome biogas plant
  45. 45. Energy potential of different materials C/N Ratio Hydraulic Retention Time Duck dropping 8 Human waste 55 days Human Excreta 8 Cow/Buffalo Dung 45 days Chicken dropping 10 Goat dung 12 Low C/N ratio  Low gas production Pig dung 18 (Need 3 times the plant size to produce Sheep dung 19 same amt of biogas as cow dung) Cow/Buffalo dung 24 Water Hyacinth 25 High HRT  Less amount required Elephant dung 43 for feeding into plant Maize stalk 60 Rice straw 70 WASH solution – HYBRID PLANT Wheat straw 90 Cow dung for biogas production Saw dust 200 Human waste for sanitation
  46. 46. Biogas sewage treatment Already tried and tested in Kenya – proving that this treatment system works well at low cost. Funding for pilots and testing in this technology needed.
  47. 47. Typical scene in semi-urban towns around Pakistan Environmental engineering solutions needed Must be: low cost, low tech and environmentally beneficial
  48. 48. UNICEF promotes model latrines, which it supports with < 9,000 PKR. This model cost 5,500, for slab, cement, etc. Now the community have the design model.
  49. 49. The problem of standing water is prevalent across Sindh – posing a challenge to both WASH and agriculture / livelihood colleagues: which species are most appropriate here?
  50. 50. Adapting local spaces Very low cost (c. £10) Paid by owner Materials only now available on local market
  51. 51. UNICEF / NRSP provided 5,500 towards the cost of this latrine. Note: INNOVATION for hand-washing
  52. 52. What difference does it make? Latrine Cost $ / Unit # Units # people reached (SPHERE) Financial saving Normal vs low- cost 90 vs. 30 3,250 65,000 $ 195,000 @ 1m people 90 vs 30 50,000 1,000,000 $ 3,000,000 families people 1 latrine per 20 persons 10,000 65,000 3,250 100,000 650,000 32,500 153,846 1,000,000 50,000 # units # units # units # units cost / unit $ 10,000 32,500 50,000 3,250 90 3,250 292,500 Latrine 90 900,000 2,925,000 4500000 292,500 Latrine 2 30 300,000 975,000 1500000 97,500 difference 600,000 1,950,000 3,000,000 195,000
  53. 53. Outcomes of 2012 workshop: research priorities Sector Focus Emergency sanitation Cost, design, ecology Hygiene kits Evidence of impact Emergency water Innovation and lower cost Purr / aqua tabs Research efficacy / impact ER sanitation Effective sewage treatment Innovations testing Environmental impact Biogas and wetlands ER water Durable HH solutions Local soap production Pilot on much larger scale Groundwater quality Link with existing research Specific problem areas Environmental impact of materials e.g. wood for latrines – at scale, what impact?
  54. 54. Quick compost making Essential material for establishing plant and tree nurseries Source: IDEP permaculture field school, Aceh
  55. 55. Applied at a household garden level these innovations can generate enormous returns. building resilience for communities facing malnutrition: access to micro-nutrients around the home Garden in Jordan, used as part of short training courses. Source: Permaculture Research Institute, Australia
  56. 56. Restoration of degraded, former agricultural desert land in Jordan applying permaculture design principles to create highly productive plantations. In Sindh, with a similar climate, this approach could be adopted, transforming salinated or depleted land into a resource for fresh food, fuel, produce for sale, construction materials, employment. This short film gives a good introduction to the strategy and methods used: Before and after, Jordan, 2001. Source: Permaculture Research Institute, Australia
  57. 57. HANDS in Gotki – a good example of grey water run-off. Eucalyptus chosen – fast growing, very water hungry, high value timber
  58. 58. Bamboo or short rotation coppice to absorb waste waters The problem is the solution (creates an opportunity rather than a problem)
  59. 59. Slide 1: A normal village in Sindh: little shade in the extreme heat, no kitchen gardens, high malnutrition, poor health and hygiene, deforestation, denuded environment, etc.
  60. 60. Concept: DFID Illustration and artwork: UNHABITAT
  61. 61. Loess Plateau – China An example of reducing vulnerability & increasing resilience (for 50m people)
  62. 62. Stabilise eroding landscapes – tree roots bind soil & produce food
  63. 63. Youtube: Hope in a Changing Climate, trailer = 5 mins.
  64. 64. Before After Tamera, Southern Portugal