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Primitive School vs.
Formal School
Ms. Lorabelle M. Salvadora
Ph.D Student
Where does
Education came
from?
How does it
looks like
before?
Education in Primitive and Early
Civilized Cultures
1 Prehistoric and Primitive Cultures
2
Education in the Earliest
Civilizations
3
The New World civilizations of the
Maya, Aztecs, and Incas
1
Prehistoric and Primitive
Cultures
The term education can be applied to
primitive cultures only in the sense
of enculturation, (which is the process
of cultural transmission.)
The model of life is relatively static and
absolute, and it is transmitted from one
generation to another with little
deviation.
As for prehistoric education, it can only
be inferred from educational practices
in surviving primitive cultures.
The purpose of primitive education is
thus to guide children to becoming good
members of their tribe or band.
Primitive children, before reaching
puberty, learn by doing and observing
basic technical practices.
Their teachers are not strangers but
rather their immediate community.
The initiation “curriculum” does not
usually include practical subjects.
Instead, it consists of a whole set of
cultural values, tribal religion, myths,
philosophy, history, rituals, and other
knowledge.
2
Education in the Earliest
Civilizations
Egypt
Mesopotamia
North China
Egyptian culture and education were
preserved and controlled chiefly by
the priests, a powerful intellectual elite
in the Egyptian theocracy who also
served as the political bulwarks by
preventing cultural diversity.
Egypt
The humanities as well as such
practical subjects
as science, medicine, mathematics,
and geometry were in the hands of
the priests, who taught in formal
schools.
Drill and memorization were the
typical methods employed.
The humanities as well as such
practical subjects
as science, medicine, mathematics,
and geometry were in the hands of
the priests, who taught in formal
schools.
Drill and memorization were the typical
methods employed.
Methods of teaching and learning
were memorization, oral repetition,
copying models, and individual
instruction.
It is believed that the exact copying
of scripts was the hardest and most
strenuous and served as the test of
excellence in learning.
Mesopotamia
Formal education was practical and
aimed to train scribes and priests.
Generally, youth of the upper
classes were prepared to become
scribes, who ranged from copyists to
librarians and teachers.
The period of education was long
and rigorous, and discipline was
harsh.
In North China, the civilization of
which began with the emergence of
the Shang era, complex educational
practices were in effect at a very
early date
North China
In fact, every important foundation of
the formation of modern Chinese
character was already established, to
a great extent, more than 3,000
years ago.
Chinese ancient formal education
was distinguished by its
markedly secular and moral
character.
With regard to actual methods of
education, ancient Chinese learned
from bamboo books and obtained
moral training and practice in rituals
by word of mouth and example.
Education was regarded as the
process of individual development
from within.
3
The New World civilizations of
the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas
Maya
Aztecs
Incas
MayaBeing a highly religious culture, the
Maya regarded the priesthood as one
of the most influential factors in the
development of their society.
Character training was one of
the salient features of Mayan
education.
Maya
The priest enjoyed high prestige by
virtue of his extensive knowledge,
literate skills, and religious and moral
leadership, and high priests served
as major advisers of the rulers and
the nobility.
In order to develop self-discipline,
the future priest endured a long
period of continence and abstinence
and, to develop a sense of loyalty
to community, he engaged in group
labour.
Cultural preservation relied heavily
upon oral transmission and rote
memorization of important events,
calendrical information, and religious
knowledge.
Aztecs
Visual aids, such as simple graphic
representations, were used to guide
recitation phases, to sustain interest,
and to increase comprehension of
facts and dates.
The Incas did not possess a written
or recorded language as far as is
known. Like the Aztecs, they also
depended largely on oral
transmission as a means of
maintaining the preservation of their
culture.
Incas
Inca education was divided into two
distinct categories: vocational
education for common Incas and
highly formalized training for the
nobility.
Education for the nobility consisted
of a four-year program that was
clearly defined in terms of the
curricula and rituals. In the first year
the pupils learned Quechua, the
language of the nobility. The second
year was devoted to the study of
religion and the third year to learning
about the quipu (khipu), a complex
system of knotted coloured strings or
cords used largely for accounting
purposes.
In the fourth year major attention was
given to the study of history, with
additional instruction in sciences,
geometry, geography, and
astronomy.
After the completion of this
education, the pupils were required
to pass a series of rigorous
examinations in order to attain full
status in the life of the Inca nobility.
Philippine
Education
during Pre-
Colonial Period
Before 1512
The type of education is informal
and unstructured.
The home serves as their school.
The parents serves as their
teachers.
Focused more on vocational than
academics.
Tribal tutors (ex: the babaylan)
Philippine Education during
Pre-Colonial Period
Most communities, stories, songs,
poetry, dances, medicinal pratices
and advice regarding all sorts of
community life issues were passed
from generation to generation
mostly through oral tradition
Some communities utilised a writing
system known as baybayin.
Alibata- composed of 17 symbols
representing the letters of the
alphabet.
Methods of Education
1
“Tell Me” or “Show Me” or
demonstrate method
2
Alibata (Baybayin) which is
composed of 14 consonants
and 3 vowels
3 Oral, practical and hands on
Philippine
Education
during Spanish
Regime
1521- 1896
Education was formal.
Established schools from the
primary level to the tertiary level of
education.
Focused on the Christian Doctrines.
Separate school for boys (colegios)
and girls (beaterio)
Philippine Education during
Spanish Regime
Ilustrados were accommodated in
the schools.
Missionary teachers (friars) replaced
the tribal tutors.
Catholic doctrine schools that were
set up initially became parochial
schools which taught reading and
writing along with catechism.
Education Decree of 1863-
mandated the establishment of free
primary schools in each town, one
for the boys and one for the girls,
with the precise number of schools
depending on the size of the
population.
There were 3 grades: entrada,
acenso, and termino.
The Normal School, run by the
Jesuits, was also established which
gave men the opportunity to study a
three- year teacher education for the
primary level.
Normal schools for women teachers
were not established until 1875, in
Nueva Caceres.
Method of Teaching
1 Catechetical instruction
2 Use of corporal punishment
3 Rote memorization
4 Instruction was in dialect
Spanish Contribution Roles:
1
The friars controlled the
educational system
2
The missionaries took charge in
teaching, controlling and
maintaining the rules and
regulations.
Spanish Contribution Roles:
3
Parochial schools were led by
Dominicans and Jesuits
4
Establishment of normal school
for male teachers under the
supervision of the Jesuits.
Philippine
Education
during
American
Regime1898- 1935
Course of study is prescribed
uniform and centralized.
Formal structured and existence of
an educational system.
1899- more schools were opened,
this time, with 24 English-language
teachers and 4 500 students
American Contribution
Act No. 74- a highly centralized,
experimental public school system
was installed in 1901 and 1902-
Philippine Commission
Between1901 and 1902- Philippine
Commission authorized the
Secretary of Public Instruction to
bring more than 1 000 teachers from
the United States, who were called
the Thomasites, to the Philippines
and distributed throughout the
islands.
Act No. 74- a highly centralized,
experimental public school system
was installed in 1901 and 1902-
Philippine Commission
Between1901 and 1902- Philippine
Commission authorized the
Secretary of Public Instruction to
bring more than 1 000 teachers from
the United States, who were called
the Thomasites, to the Philippines
and distributed throughout the
islands.
The same law established the Philippine
Normal School (now the Philippine
Normal University) to train aspiring
Filipino teachers.
The high school system was supported
by provincial governments and included
special educational institutions, schools
of arts and trades, an agricultural school,
and commerce and marine institutes,
which were established in 1902 by the
Philippine Commission Act No. 372-
authorised the opening of provincial high
schools.
Act No. 1870 initiated the opening of
the University of the Philippines,
now the country’s national
university. (1908) attainment
Act No. 1381, also known as
Gabaldon Law, was passed in 1907,
which provided funds for the
construction of concrete schools.
Philippine
Education
during
Japanese
Regime1941- 1944
Contribution
Characteristics:
Course of Study
a.Prescribed
b.Uniform
c.Centralized
6 Basic Principles of
Japanese Education
To stop depending on western
countries like the US and Great
Britain. Promote and enrich the
Filipino culture
1
To recognize that the Philippines is
a part of the Greater East Asia Co-
Prosperity Sphere so that the
Philippines and Japan will have
good relations.
2
To be aware of materialism to raise
the morality of the Filipinos
3
To learn and adopt Nippongo and
to stop using the English language.
4
To spread elementary and
vocational education.
5
To develop love for work.
6
Philippine
Education
at Present
1946- Present
The educational system was
patterned from Spain and America.
Had moved in various directions of
its own.
Elementary and High School is
compulsary.
Philippine Education at
Present
2010- President Benigno Aquino III
expresses his desire to implement
K-12 basic education.
Kindergarten Education Aact of
2012- Kindergarten compulsary.
Enhanced Basic Education Act of
2013
SY 2011- 2012 DepED- K-12
Program was implemented
Education in the Philippines
was Managed and Regulated
by the:
1 DepEd
2 CHED
3 TESDA
Traditional
Educational
System
Traditional Educational System
Advantages Disadvantages
Punctuality Generalized learning
Social interactions Passive listeners
Extracurricular
activities
No flexible time
Face to face
interactions
Expensive
Teacher-centered
learning
Modern
Educational
System
Modern Educational System
Advantages Disadvantages
Distant education Lack of social
interaction
Flexibility The chance to get
distracted
Student-centered Learners get
isolated
Low cost
Any questions?
Thank
You!
Lorabelle M. Salvadora
Email: lorabellesalvadora@yahoo.com

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Primitive School vs. Formal School

  • 1. Primitive School vs. Formal School Ms. Lorabelle M. Salvadora Ph.D Student
  • 3. How does it looks like before?
  • 4. Education in Primitive and Early Civilized Cultures 1 Prehistoric and Primitive Cultures 2 Education in the Earliest Civilizations 3 The New World civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas
  • 5. 1 Prehistoric and Primitive Cultures The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation, (which is the process of cultural transmission.) The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation.
  • 6. As for prehistoric education, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures. The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their tribe or band. Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices.
  • 7. Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate community. The initiation “curriculum” does not usually include practical subjects. Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion, myths, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge.
  • 8. 2 Education in the Earliest Civilizations Egypt Mesopotamia North China
  • 9. Egyptian culture and education were preserved and controlled chiefly by the priests, a powerful intellectual elite in the Egyptian theocracy who also served as the political bulwarks by preventing cultural diversity. Egypt
  • 10. The humanities as well as such practical subjects as science, medicine, mathematics, and geometry were in the hands of the priests, who taught in formal schools. Drill and memorization were the typical methods employed.
  • 11. The humanities as well as such practical subjects as science, medicine, mathematics, and geometry were in the hands of the priests, who taught in formal schools. Drill and memorization were the typical methods employed.
  • 12. Methods of teaching and learning were memorization, oral repetition, copying models, and individual instruction. It is believed that the exact copying of scripts was the hardest and most strenuous and served as the test of excellence in learning.
  • 13. Mesopotamia Formal education was practical and aimed to train scribes and priests. Generally, youth of the upper classes were prepared to become scribes, who ranged from copyists to librarians and teachers.
  • 14. The period of education was long and rigorous, and discipline was harsh.
  • 15. In North China, the civilization of which began with the emergence of the Shang era, complex educational practices were in effect at a very early date North China
  • 16. In fact, every important foundation of the formation of modern Chinese character was already established, to a great extent, more than 3,000 years ago. Chinese ancient formal education was distinguished by its markedly secular and moral character.
  • 17. With regard to actual methods of education, ancient Chinese learned from bamboo books and obtained moral training and practice in rituals by word of mouth and example. Education was regarded as the process of individual development from within.
  • 18. 3 The New World civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas Maya Aztecs Incas
  • 19. MayaBeing a highly religious culture, the Maya regarded the priesthood as one of the most influential factors in the development of their society. Character training was one of the salient features of Mayan education. Maya
  • 20. The priest enjoyed high prestige by virtue of his extensive knowledge, literate skills, and religious and moral leadership, and high priests served as major advisers of the rulers and the nobility.
  • 21. In order to develop self-discipline, the future priest endured a long period of continence and abstinence and, to develop a sense of loyalty to community, he engaged in group labour.
  • 22. Cultural preservation relied heavily upon oral transmission and rote memorization of important events, calendrical information, and religious knowledge. Aztecs
  • 23. Visual aids, such as simple graphic representations, were used to guide recitation phases, to sustain interest, and to increase comprehension of facts and dates.
  • 24. The Incas did not possess a written or recorded language as far as is known. Like the Aztecs, they also depended largely on oral transmission as a means of maintaining the preservation of their culture. Incas
  • 25. Inca education was divided into two distinct categories: vocational education for common Incas and highly formalized training for the nobility.
  • 26. Education for the nobility consisted of a four-year program that was clearly defined in terms of the curricula and rituals. In the first year the pupils learned Quechua, the language of the nobility. The second year was devoted to the study of religion and the third year to learning about the quipu (khipu), a complex system of knotted coloured strings or cords used largely for accounting purposes.
  • 27. In the fourth year major attention was given to the study of history, with additional instruction in sciences, geometry, geography, and astronomy. After the completion of this education, the pupils were required to pass a series of rigorous examinations in order to attain full status in the life of the Inca nobility.
  • 29. The type of education is informal and unstructured. The home serves as their school. The parents serves as their teachers. Focused more on vocational than academics. Tribal tutors (ex: the babaylan) Philippine Education during Pre-Colonial Period
  • 30. Most communities, stories, songs, poetry, dances, medicinal pratices and advice regarding all sorts of community life issues were passed from generation to generation mostly through oral tradition Some communities utilised a writing system known as baybayin. Alibata- composed of 17 symbols representing the letters of the alphabet.
  • 31. Methods of Education 1 “Tell Me” or “Show Me” or demonstrate method 2 Alibata (Baybayin) which is composed of 14 consonants and 3 vowels 3 Oral, practical and hands on
  • 33. Education was formal. Established schools from the primary level to the tertiary level of education. Focused on the Christian Doctrines. Separate school for boys (colegios) and girls (beaterio) Philippine Education during Spanish Regime
  • 34. Ilustrados were accommodated in the schools. Missionary teachers (friars) replaced the tribal tutors. Catholic doctrine schools that were set up initially became parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with catechism.
  • 35. Education Decree of 1863- mandated the establishment of free primary schools in each town, one for the boys and one for the girls, with the precise number of schools depending on the size of the population. There were 3 grades: entrada, acenso, and termino.
  • 36. The Normal School, run by the Jesuits, was also established which gave men the opportunity to study a three- year teacher education for the primary level. Normal schools for women teachers were not established until 1875, in Nueva Caceres.
  • 37. Method of Teaching 1 Catechetical instruction 2 Use of corporal punishment 3 Rote memorization 4 Instruction was in dialect
  • 38. Spanish Contribution Roles: 1 The friars controlled the educational system 2 The missionaries took charge in teaching, controlling and maintaining the rules and regulations.
  • 39. Spanish Contribution Roles: 3 Parochial schools were led by Dominicans and Jesuits 4 Establishment of normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits.
  • 41. Course of study is prescribed uniform and centralized. Formal structured and existence of an educational system. 1899- more schools were opened, this time, with 24 English-language teachers and 4 500 students American Contribution
  • 42. Act No. 74- a highly centralized, experimental public school system was installed in 1901 and 1902- Philippine Commission Between1901 and 1902- Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring more than 1 000 teachers from the United States, who were called the Thomasites, to the Philippines and distributed throughout the islands.
  • 43. Act No. 74- a highly centralized, experimental public school system was installed in 1901 and 1902- Philippine Commission Between1901 and 1902- Philippine Commission authorized the Secretary of Public Instruction to bring more than 1 000 teachers from the United States, who were called the Thomasites, to the Philippines and distributed throughout the islands.
  • 44. The same law established the Philippine Normal School (now the Philippine Normal University) to train aspiring Filipino teachers. The high school system was supported by provincial governments and included special educational institutions, schools of arts and trades, an agricultural school, and commerce and marine institutes, which were established in 1902 by the Philippine Commission Act No. 372- authorised the opening of provincial high schools.
  • 45. Act No. 1870 initiated the opening of the University of the Philippines, now the country’s national university. (1908) attainment Act No. 1381, also known as Gabaldon Law, was passed in 1907, which provided funds for the construction of concrete schools.
  • 48. 6 Basic Principles of Japanese Education To stop depending on western countries like the US and Great Britain. Promote and enrich the Filipino culture 1
  • 49. To recognize that the Philippines is a part of the Greater East Asia Co- Prosperity Sphere so that the Philippines and Japan will have good relations. 2 To be aware of materialism to raise the morality of the Filipinos 3
  • 50. To learn and adopt Nippongo and to stop using the English language. 4 To spread elementary and vocational education. 5 To develop love for work. 6
  • 52. The educational system was patterned from Spain and America. Had moved in various directions of its own. Elementary and High School is compulsary. Philippine Education at Present
  • 53. 2010- President Benigno Aquino III expresses his desire to implement K-12 basic education. Kindergarten Education Aact of 2012- Kindergarten compulsary. Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 SY 2011- 2012 DepED- K-12 Program was implemented
  • 54. Education in the Philippines was Managed and Regulated by the: 1 DepEd 2 CHED 3 TESDA
  • 56. Traditional Educational System Advantages Disadvantages Punctuality Generalized learning Social interactions Passive listeners Extracurricular activities No flexible time Face to face interactions Expensive Teacher-centered learning
  • 58. Modern Educational System Advantages Disadvantages Distant education Lack of social interaction Flexibility The chance to get distracted Student-centered Learners get isolated Low cost
  • 60. Thank You! Lorabelle M. Salvadora Email: lorabellesalvadora@yahoo.com