BRANDING DECISIONSBRANDMeaningBrand is a name, term, symbol or a design or a combinationof them which is intended to identify the goods or services ofone seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them fromthose of competitors.
BRANDING Branding is the process of identifying the name of a producer with his product by affixing to the product or its container the trade name or brand represented by words or design. BRAND NAME A Brand name consists of words letters or numbers which may be vocalized or pronounced , e.g.. Pepsi, Whirlpool etc.
BRAND MARK Brand mark is the part of brand which appears in the form of a symbol, design or distinctive coloring or lettering. It could be recognized only by sight but may not be pronounceable, e.g.. The symbol of Air India, symbol of Vodafone etc. TRADE MARK When a brand name or brand mark is registered and legalized it becomes a trade mark.
•TRADE NAMEA trade name is the name of business, preferably the name ofthe organisation itself. A trade name may also be a brandname.Eg. TATAs Jasmine soaps, hair oil, powder etc. MTR Pickle, Rasam Powder etc.
BRAND EQUITYThe overall strength of a brand in the marketplace and itsvalue to the company that owns it.BRAND LOYALTYThe level of commitment that customers feel toward a givenbrand as represented by their continuing purchase of thatbrand.
Functions of Branding• Product Identification• Product Differentiation• Eliminates Imitation• Denotes standard or quality of the product• Trade mark ensures legal right• Helps for brand loyalty• Helps in packaging• Helps advertising• Helps salesmanship• Helps for price differentiation• Helps to sell the products easily• Helps for repeated sales
METHODS OF BRANDING•Using the name of the manufacturerGodrej furniture, Ford motors, Britannia biscuits, Bata shoes,Tata hair oil etc.•Using a special NameHamam soap, Prince blade, Parker pen, Camel pencil etc.•Using a number501 bar soap, 30 beedies, 555 cigarette etc.•Using a special symbol or a designMonkey brand toothpowder, Key brand kerosene, Elephantbrand cigarette, Scissors cigarette, Camel brand ink, stagbrand umbrella.
BRANDING STRATEGIESBrand strategy is an indication as to how a concern choosesto use branding as an integral part of its overall marketingstrategy.Different brand strategy options•Single-Brand or Blanket Brand or Family Brand or UmbrellaBrand Product strategy:It refers to the use of a single brand name by a concern for allthe products sold by it, whether the brand name is that of afamily, firm or an individual.
• Multi Brand Product Strategy:It refers to the practice of offering each product in a productcategory under a separate brand name.Eg. HLLs Lux, Pears, Rexona, Lifebuoy etc.• Distributors Brand or Private Brand Strategy:It is a brand strategy under which a manufacturer may opt tointroduce his products under a distributors brand name.• Mixed Brand Strategy:It is a brand strategy under which a manufacturer offers hisproducts to consumers partly under his own brand name andpartly under distributors brand name.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Branding has become management technique as it involves considerations of alternatives and choosing the best alternative.1.TO BRAND OR NOT TO BRANDBranding- costly and riskyDifficult to identify the product without brandingIn advanced countries people shift to non branded goods- look at reasonable price.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING 2. MANUFACTURER’S BRAND OR PRIVATE BRANDMany Indian firms are manufacturing products for private brands of the foreign sellers.Difficult to sell the products in the international market under local and unfamiliar brands.Even goods exported under Indian brands are repacked abroad and sold under foreign brand names.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING 3. SAME BRANDS OR DIFFERENT BRANDSSame brands for all the countriesDifferent brands for the different countriesOne brand for domestic country and same brand for all foreign countries.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING GLOBAL BRANDSPepsi, coca-cola, McDonalds, Philips.Because of cultural differences, it is not possible to have same brands for all the countries.E.g.- colors, numbers, symbols etc.- different meanings in different countries.NOVA in Spanish means “It does not move”.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETINGFollowing points must be considered• A word has/does not have dictionary meaning from canon to Kodak• A word which projects quality or user advantage- Sleep well• A word which is commonly spoken across the world- Good Year, Apple• A word which is or not hyphenated- Coca-Cola, Pepsi• A product technology understandable to the buyer- BSNL 3G• A word which has the regional importance and can easily be made known to the international buyer Lenovo, IBM, Infosys, Wipro.
BRANDING DECISIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING ADVANTAGES OF GLOBAL BRANDS• It makes market entry easy• It reduces the promotional expenses• It helps to generate good sales• Easy to compete
BRANDING PROBLEMS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• It is difficult for a small firm to promote its brand internationally- because of heavy cost• Established foreign importers and distributors discourage use of exporters brand- they have their own brand name• Cultural differences make international branding difficult
BRANDING PROBLEMS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• Sometimes world famous brands have been already registered by somebody else in a country where MNC is now entering.• In some countries there is restriction in using foreign brands- prefixing or suffixing an Indian word is must.E.g.- Lehar Pepsi, LML Vespa, Swaraj Mazda, Hero Honda, Maruti-Suzuki, Bajaj Alliance, etc.
SCOPE FOR USE OF INDIAN BRANDSIN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• Indian brand names may be used when niche marketing strategy is employed.Niche marketing means concentrating on a market segment that is not satisfactorily served or which is ignored by the major players.E.g.- In the US toothpaste market, dominated by large MNCs, Balsara identified a niche for a herbal dental product.Vicco identified a niche for a sugar free toothpaste- Vicco SF
SCOPE FOR USE OF INDIAN BRANDSIN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• Indian brands may be used when the export is made to foreign firms who do not have their own brands- push strategy.• After gaining experience in export business Indian firms can sell on their own brands, while exporting without brands.• An Indian company may buy a foreign brand or a companyE.g.- In 1994 Arvind Mills acquired Europes THE BIG MILL
SCOPE FOR USE OF INDIAN BRANDSIN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING• Indian Companies can combine their brands with foreign brands. E.g. – Tata-Tetley• Several firms may jointly promote a common brand• Using logo along with brands will help the companies to promote their brands.• E.g.- Tea board successfully promoted the Darjeeling logo in the foreign market.
PACKAGING DECISIONSPacking Packing means covering, wrapping and crating of goods into a package before they are transported or stored.Packaging Packaging is the use of containers and wrapping materials plus decoration and labeling to protect the product, to help and promote its sales, and to make it convenient for the customers to use the product.
PACKAGING DECISIONSIn International marketing much attention should be given.Goods may be rejected because of poor packaging even though quality is good.
FUNCTIONS OF PACKAGING Protection from various kinds of damages Preservation Presentation Convenience Economy- prevents loss It explains about the product Projects popularity of the producer Provides innovational opportunities Acts as an advertisement It facilitates transportation, handling and storage Helps for legal requirements
FACTORS INFLUENCING PACKAGING DECISIONS Physical characteristics- weight, fragility, rigidity, surface finish etc. Physio-chemical characteristics- effect of moisture, oxygen, light, flame, bacteria, fungus, chemical action etc. Economy- cost must be reduced. Convenience- easy to open an close, easy to dispose, easy to recycle, easy to identify, easy to handle, easy to display etc.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Regulations in foreign countries- standards must be followed- local languages. Buyer’s specifications- Importers specifications Socio-cultural factors- customs, traditions, beliefs.Blue- feminine and warm in Holland Masculine and cold in SwedenGreen- Favorite in Islamic countries In Malaysia associated with illnessWhite- Death and mourning in China and Korea Happiness and bridal dress in some countriesRed- Popular in communist countries National distaste in some African countries.
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Retailing characteristics- In self service stores it should be attractive, describe product feature, give consumer confidence etc. Environmental factors- weather and climate factors- origin, transit and market. Disposability- Recyclability, Environment friendly, reusability etc.
IMPORTANCE AND REQUIREMENTS OF EXPORT PACKING Should ensure safe and easy transport of products Shipping company will not be responsible for poor packing Insurance company may not bear the riskPacking should satisfy the following conditions Capable of withstanding the hazards of handling and transport Hooks, handles, grippers must be provided Position should be clearly indicated ‘ Side Up’ Glass with care, fragile must be mentioned It should facilitate quick examination If possible contents must not be disclosed Guidelines must be strictly followed
IMPORTANCE AND REQUIREMENTS OF EXPORT PACKINGThree most important considerations in Packaging SAFETY CONVENIENCE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
PACKAGING POLICIES AND STRATEGIES• Strategy of Periodic Packaging ChangesA firm may make periodic changes in productpackages.•Family PackagingIt is a kind of packaging strategy in which packages ofthe entire product line closely resemble one another.E.g.. Old Spice shaving cream, after shave lotion andother related items have identical packages- picture ofa white bright ship on them.
Re-use Packaging It is a strategy in which the marketer offers product in such a package which may be reused for other purposes after the product has been taken out of the package or exhausted. Multiple Packaging It is a strategy in which a number of heterogeneous products are placed and supplied in a single package. E.g. A shirt, tie and a kerchief tools thread, needle, scissors etc.
Ecological Packaging It is a kind of packaging strategy in which a firm formulates such a packaging strategy as to protect the physical environment. Returnable containers light weight materials Recycling materials
TYPES OF PACKAGING Transit Packaging Consumer Packaging Bulk Packaging
PACKAGING DECISIONS A decision taken in respect of packaging of product is known as packaging decisions. Need for protection Product differentiation Package design- colour, size, shape Package size Package cost
PACKAGING MATERIALS Netherlands forbids the use of straw packing South Africa and New Zealand both insist on declarations that timber used in packing is free from certain diseases Export of Food products to USA must conform to the provisions of US Food and Drugs Act. Australia bans the import of any packing material containing vegetable matters.
ROLE OF IIP IN EXPORT PACKAGING Cardamom- Half, One and Two Kgs in Plastic containers Mangoes- Paper Board packaging Handicrafts- Using plastic foams Grapes- Paper based packaging