• The word "brand" is often used as
a metonym, referring to the company that is
strongly identified with a brand.
• Brand is the "name, term, design, symbol, or
any other feature that identifies one seller's
product distinct from those of other sellers.
• A brand is often the most valuable asset of a
• A modern example of a brand is Coca
Cola which belongs to the Coca-Cola Company.
Types of Brand Names
Initialism: A name made of initials such, as UPS or IBM
Descriptive: Names that describe a product benefit or function, such as Whole Foods or Airbus
Alliteration and rhyme: Names that are fun to say and stick in the mind, such as Reese's Pieces or
Evocative: Names that evoke a relevant vivid image, such as Amazon or Crest
Neologisms: Completely made-up words, such as Wii or Kodak
Foreign word: Adoption of a word from another language, such as Volvo or Samsung
Founders' names: Using the names of real people, (especially a founder's name), such as
Hewlett-Packard, Dell or Disney
Geography: Many brands are named for regions and landmarks, such as Cisco and Fuji Film
• Brand equity is a what the brand is worth to a
• Brand equity consists of all the
thoughts, feelings, images, experiences, beliefs, a
nd so on that become associated with the brand.
Brands must create strong, favourable and unique
brand associations with customers, as has been
the case with Volvo (safety), hallmark
(caring), and Harley-Davidson (adventure).
• The differential response by consumers that
makes up the brand equity is reflected in
perceptions, preferences, and behaviour
related to all aspects of the marketing of a
BENEFITS OF BRAND EQUITY
• Strong brand names simplify the decision process and reduce risk.
• Brand names are used to maintain higher awareness of products.
• Company’s use brand equity to gain leverage when introducing new
• The brand name is often interpreted as an indicator of quality.
• Strong brand equity insures that your products are considered by
• Higher brand name equity leads to greater loyalty from customers.
• Strong brand equity is the best defence against new products and
• Improvements in brand equity lead to higher rates of product trial
and repeat purchasing due to buyers' awareness of your
brand, approval of its image/reputation and trust in its quality.
BUILDING BRAND EQUITY
• The initial choices for the brand elements or
identities making up the brand.
• The product and service and all accompanying
marketing activities and supporting marketing
• Other associations indirectly transferred to the
brand by linking it to some other entity (e.g., a
person, place, or thing).
E.g.. Apple Computers
• “To create great things that change people’s lives”
“Open iPod DJ Parties”
• Apple spent $293 million to create 73 retail stores to
fuel excitement for the brand.
....14 million visitors in 2003
.....more people can see and touch Apple
products—and see what Apple can do for them—the
more likely Apple is to increase its market share, which is
still a tiny slice of the PC market.
• Branding is a process that allows an
individual or a group of individuals the ability
to provide a brand image and lettering to an
• A very important step in marketing a brand is
to identify the target audience .
• Brand Sponsorship is a business association between
the contributor of funds and an
organization/individual so that the partnership can
be used for commercial advantage.
A good example is the Indian cricket team. Sponsors
like SAHARA, Coke pay for their kit and equipment
and have their logos all over their dress from the
helmet to the bat. This is a form of advertising which
works really well because we would be more
convinced with our cricketers sporting these logos.
Eg : Brand Sponsorship
The Global Innovation Series is supported by BMW i, a new concept dedicated to
providing mobility solutions for the urban environment. It delivers more than
purpose-built electric vehicles — it delivers smart mobility services.
2. Buy Some Clothing — This Shirt Helps
The good folks at This Shirt Helps have come up with a way for you to stay warm and
support a good cause. The company sells just the basics — different t-shirts in
different colors — with a social good spin. A percentage of every shirt goes to a charity
and cause of choice. For example, buyers can choose to donate to disaster relief which
supports Waves for Water, a program that pairs surfing tourists with low-cost water
filters they can set up in the developing countries they visit.
3. Purify It - SteriPen
Once a community has access to water, how do you make sure it is safe to drink?
Cheap, efficient water purifiers are in high-demand. There are a variety of highgrade purifiers on the market — SteriPen, for example, has options for camping,
emergency and military use.
Brand Strategic Decisions
A company has five choices when it comes to
brand strategy. There are line extensions, brand
extensions, multi-brands, new brands and cobrands
Line Extensions consist of introducing additional
items in the same product category under the
same brand name, such as new
flavors, forms, colors, added ingredients and
• A company may use its existing brand name to launch new products in other categories.
A Company will often introduce additional brands in the same product category. Sometimes the
company is trying to establish different features or appeal to different buying motives.
• 4.New Brands:
When a Company launches products in a new category, it may find that none of its current brand
names are appropriate.
Co-Brands are also called as dual branding, in which two or more well known brands are
combined in an offer. Co-branding takes a variety of forms. One is ingredient cobranding, second one is same company co-branding & third is joint venture co-branding .
• Decide what you’re going to brand.
Are you branding a product, a service, a company, or an individual?
• Do your research.
First, find out everything there is to know about your market. Then, find out
everything there is to know about your product or service.
• Position your product or service.
Find and win a place for your offering in the marketplace and in consumers’
minds by providing unique solutions to problems or needs that aren’t already
being addressed by competing products.
• Write your brand definition.
Your brand definition describes what you offer, why you offer it, how your
offering is different and better, what unique benefits your customers can count
on, and what promise or set of promises you make to all who work with and
buy from your business.
face of your brand. Your tagline is the memorable phrase that provides
consumers with a quick indication of your product, brand, and market position.
• Develop your name, logo, and tagline.
Your name is the key that unlocks your brand image in your consumer’s
mind. Your logo is the brand mark or symbol that serves as the face of your
• Launch your Brand
Your brand goes public when you unveil your name, logo, and slogan, and
when you begin to tell your market the story of how your brand reflects what
you stand for.
• Manage, leverage, and protect your brand.
This is the “care and feeding” phase of the branding process; it’s the step
that leads to a strong, healthy, resilient brand. Just like good parenting, good
branding management can be summed up in a single word — consistency.
• Realign your brand to keep it current.
Occasionally, you can (and should) change how your brand is presented.
From time to time, you need to update your brand presentation (the face of
your brand) to keep it relevant to the market in which it lives.
• Co branding is the utilization of two or more
brands to name a new product. The ingredient
brands help each other to achieve their aims.
The overall synchronization between the
brand pair and the new product has to be kept
• Example of co-branding - Citibank co-branded
with MTV to launch a co-branded debit card.
This card is beneficial to customers who can
avail benefits at specific outlets called MTV
Advantages & Disadvantages
• Co-branding has various advantages,
• such as - risk-sharing, generation of royalty income, more sales
income, greater customer trust on the product, wide scope due to joint
advertising, technological benefits, better product image by association
with another renowned brand, and greater access to new sources of
• But co-branding is not free from limitations.
• Co-branding may fail when the two products have different market and
are entirely different. If there is difference in visions and missions of the
two companies, then also composite branding may fail. Co-branding may
affect partner brands in adverse manner. If the customers associate any
adverse experience with a constituent brand, then it may damage the
total brand equity.
• Brand positioning refers to “target
consumer’s” reason to buy your brand in
preference to others.
• It is ensures that all brand activity has a
common aim; is guided, directed and
delivered by the brand’s benefits/reasons to
buy; and it focusses at all points of contact
with the consumer.
Brand positioning must make sure that:
• Is it unique/distinctive vs. competitors ?
• Is it significant and encouraging to the niche market ?
• Is it appropriate to all major geographic markets and
• Is the proposition validated with unique, appropriate
and original products ?
• Is it sustainable - can it be delivered constantly across
all points of contact with the consumer ?
• Is it helpful for organization to achieve its financial
• Is it able to support and boost up the organization ?