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Water Resources


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Water Resources

  1. 1. BY- Kiran Prasad
  2. 2. Contents1. Water – The Definition2. Water Forms and Distribution3. Types of Water Uses4. Water Availability5. Fresh Water Shortage6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts7. Increase Water Supply8. Watershed Management9. Multipurpose Water Resource Management10. Conclusion and Recommendation 2
  3. 3. 1. Water – The Definition Water is a marvelous substance which can be beautiful, powerful and destructive. 3
  4. 4. 1.1. Water Physical Attributes Water is found in three states Liquid Solid Gas 4
  5. 5. 1.2. Hydrologic Cycle 5
  6. 6. 2. Water Forms and Distribution About 71% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. 6
  7. 7. 2. Water Forms and DistributionSource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 7
  8. 8. 2.1. Oceans Is the largest area and volume of water. Contain more than 97% of the earth’s water. Contain an average of 35g salt per liter. Can be used after being desalinated. 8
  9. 9. 2.2. Ice and Snow Contain almost 90% of freshwater. Is as much as 2km thick. Situate mostly in Antarctica (85%), Greenland (10%), and other snow mountain (5%). 9
  10. 10. 2.3. Groundwater Groundwater is water in the rock and soil layer beneath Earth’s surface. Absorb excess runoff rain and snow on ground. Return to lakes, streams, rivers and/or marshes. Is readily available for use and drinking. 10
  11. 11. 2.4. Lakes Lakes are created from variety of geological events:  Tectonic-basin lake  Volcanic lake  Glacial lake  Groundwater-discharge lake Lakes generate water from:  Collection of water in low areas  Natural or man-made dam(s)  Rivers and streams  Groundwater 11
  12. 12. 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Freshwater lakes  Contribute 91,000km3 (about 0.007% of total Earth’s water)  Provide water for agricultural irrigation, industrial processes, municipal uses and residential water supplies.  Major freshwater lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), Baikal Lake (Russia), Tanganyika Lake (Eastern Africa), Lake Superior (U.S), and Malawi Lake (Eastern Africa) 12
  13. 13. 2.4. Lakes (cont.) Saline lakes  Possess 85,000km3 (about 0.006% of total Earth’s water)  Saline lakes’ water cannot be used due to high salinity. The Great Salt Lake  Major saline lakes: Caspian Sea (Central Asia), The Great Salt Lake (U.S.), The Dead Sea (between Jordan & Israel), and Aral Sea (between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan). The Dead Sea 13
  14. 14. 2.5. Rivers and Streams Rivers and streams are bodies of flowing surface water driven by gravity. Rivers and Streams contain only 2,120km3 (about 0.6% of liquid fresh water surface and around 0.0002% of the Earth’s water.) 14
  15. 15. 2.5. Rivers and Streams (cont.)World’s Major Rivers (based on average annual discharge) Source: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 15
  16. 16. 2.6. Wetlands and Soil Moisture Wetland are areas of land where water covers the surface for at least part of the year. They are not as important as lakes and rivers for water storage. However, they play vital roles in:  Erosion protection  Flood reduction  Groundwater replenishment  Trapping nutrient and sediment  Water purification  Providing fish and wildlife habitat 16
  17. 17. 5.7. Atmosphere Atmosphere contains about 0.001% of total Earth’s water. It is around 4% of air volume in the atmosphere. Movement of water through atmosphere provide mechanism for distributing freshwater to terrestrial reservoir (in form of rain, snow, hail…). 17
  18. 18. 3. Types of Water Uses Off-Stream Uses  In-Stream Uses  Agriculture  Hydropower  Thermoelectric  Navigation  Industrial  Recreation  Mining  Ecosystem Support  Domestic  Commercial 18
  19. 19. 3. Types of Water Uses Basic Assumption (by UN Water) World Water Use Irrigation Industry Domestic 8% 22% 70% Source: World Water Assessment Source: Food and Agriculture Program (WWAP) Organization (FAO) 19
  20. 20. 3. Types of Water Uses China 2008 Water Resource Report Ecological Residential 2% 12% Source: China 2008 Water Industry Resources Report 24% Agriculture 62% Cambodia 2010 Water Use Others Industry 10% 4% Domestic Source: Cambodian Ministry 17% Agriculture of Environment 56% Livestock 13% 20
  21. 21. 3.1. Off-Stream Uses Agriculture Thermoelectric Industrial Mining Domestic Commercial 21
  22. 22. a. Agriculture Irrigation  Crop irrigation consume 2/3 of water withdrawal.  Evaporation and seepage from unlined irrigation systems are the principal water losses.  There are three types of irrigation systems: Flood Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Drip Irrigation 22
  23. 23. a. Agriculture Livestock  Watering livestock  Dairy operation  Cooling livestock facilities  Dairy sanitation and clean-up  Animal waste disposal 23
  24. 24. a. Agriculture (cont.) Aquaculture  Raising fish.  Raising shellfish.  Raising shrimp and lobster.  Raising other creatures living in water. 24
  25. 25. b. Thermoelectric Water is used in production of electrical power. Thermoelectric is one of the largest uses of water in U.S.  In 2005, it consumed about 201,000 million gallons of water each day.  Thermoelectric occupied 49% of total water use in U.S.  Both freshwater and saline water are used in thermoelectric. 25
  26. 26. c. Industrial Industries need water to cool down their machinery to a temperature that allows the manufacturing process to keep going. Water is also needed to clean machinery, products, and buildings. 26
  27. 27. c. Industrial In 2005, U.S. industrial uses were 83% (15,000 gallons/day) surface water and 17% (3,110 gallons/day) groundwater. In Cambodia, rough estimation by Water Environment Partnership in Asia showed:  Major industry consumed: 1,000-2,000 m3/day  Large industry consumed: 100-500 m3/day  Medium & small industry: 50 m3/day 27
  28. 28. d. Mining Water is used for the extraction of minerals that can be in forms of:  Solid: coal, iron, gold, sand – etc.  Liquid: crude oil.  Gas: natural gases. 28
  29. 29. e. Domestic Domestic water use is the consumption for household purposes – both indoor and outdoor. In Cambodia, domestic water use was around 136 million m3 (17% of total consumption). Only people in Phnom Penh can access to piped water. 85% of piped water was consumed. 29
  30. 30. f. Commercial Water is used in businesses such as hotels, restaurants, marketplaces, and so on. In Phnom Penh, commercial use was 14% of total piped water consumption (about 11,480 m3 per day). 30
  31. 31. 3.2. In-Stream UsesHydropower RecreationNavigation Ecosystem Support 31
  32. 32. 4. Water AvailabilitySource: Environmental Science – A Global Concern, Water Use and Management 32
  33. 33. 4.1. Earth’s Water 33
  34. 34. 4.2. Water Stress & Water Scarcity Water Stress:  Annual water supplies is less than 1,700m3 per person. Water Scarcity:  Annual water supplies is less than 1,000m3 per person. Absolute scarcity:  Annual water supplies is less than 500m3 per person. 34
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. 5. Fresh Water Shortage Fresh Water Shortage is due to:  Population growth  Lack of access to clean water  Groundwater is being depleted  Climate change / global warming  Rivers and lakes are shrinking 36
  37. 37. 6. Water Use Problems and Conflicts Water Overuse  Overuse in agriculture  Overuse in residence  Overuse in community Some interesting facts: Water needed to produce our daily food:  40 liters to produce 1 slice of white bread.  70 liters to produce 1 apple.  1,300 liters to produce 1kg of wheat.  3,400 liters to produce 1kg of rice.  3,900 liters to produce 1kg of chicken meat.  15,500 liters to produce 1kg of beef. 37
  38. 38. 6. Water Use Problems and ConflictsWater Conflict  Control of Water Resources: where water supplies or access to water is at the root of tensions.  Military Tool: where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation or state as a weapon during a military action.  Political Tool: where water resources, or water systems themselves, are used by a nation, state, or non-state actor for a political goal.  Terrorism: where water resources, or water systems, are either targets or tools of violence or coercion by non-state actors.  Military Target: where water resource systems are targets of military actions by nations or states.  Development Disputes: where water resources or water systems are a major source of contention and dispute in the context of economic and social development 38
  39. 39. 7. Increase Water Supply Water Conservation Development of groundwater Desalinization Developing salt-resistant crops Developing drought-resistant crops Rainmaking Long distance water transport Improve integration of water use 39
  40. 40. 8. Watershed Management Watershed – the definition  A watershed is a connected series of streams, rivers, and lakes that collects water from a specific area of land.  Watersheds are important habitats for animals and plants, and offer a source of drinking and recreational water for many communities. 40
  41. 41. 8. Watershed Management Objectives:  The rehabilitation of degraded lands.  The protection of soil and water resources under land use systems that produce multiple products of the land.  The enhancement of water quantity and quality. Strategies:  Managing Watershed Land-Use Practice  Managing Riparian Areas  Vegetation-Type Conversion  Water Harvesting  Water Spreading 41
  42. 42. 9. Multipurpose Water Resource Management Integrated water resource management  Flood-damage reduction  Irrigation and water supply  Navigation  Recreation  Environmental protection & improvement Water Management Engineering  Reservoir construction  Levee construction  Dredging  Stream drainage channelization 42
  43. 43. 10. Conclusion & Recommendation Water resources is EVERYONE’s concern! The consumption has been increased significantly due to population growth. Water availability is decreasing due to human overuse and natural degradation. Many sources of water have become unusable. Allegedly control over water lead to intraboundary and transboundary conflicts. Effective water resource management and policy must be implemented on both local and international levels. 43
  44. 44. Tips on How to Save Water Increasing water resources start from all of us! Don’t flush every time you use the toilet. Take shorter showers Don’t wash your car so often. Don’t let the faucet run while washing hands, dishes, food, or brushing your teeth. Don’t run the dishwasher when half full. Dispose of used motor oil, household hazardous waste, batteries, etc., responsibly. 44
  45. 45. Tips on How to Save Water Don’t dump anything down a storm sewer that you wouldn’t want to drink. Avoid using toxic or hazardous chemicals for simple cleaning or plumbing jobs. If you have a lawn, use water sparingly. Water your grass and garden at night, not in the middle of the day. Use water-conserving appliances: low-flow showers, low- flush toilets. Check your toilet for leaks. 45
  46. 46.  THANK YOU ALL 46