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A presentation on basic concept of a Neuron.

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  1. 1. NEURON MuhammadSalik Roll No. KEMU `12 -`17
  2. 2. NEURON • Neurons are the basic building blocks of the nervous system. • These specialized cells are the information- processing units of the brain responsible for receiving and transmitting information. • Each part of the neuron plays a role in the communication of information throughout the body.
  3. 3. STRUCTURE OF NEURON o The main components of a neuron are o Dentrites o Cell body or Soma o Axon o Axon Hillock
  4. 4. DENTRITES  Dendrites are treelike extensions at the beginning of a neuron that help increase the surface area of the cell body and are covered with synapses. These tiny protrusions receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma.  Dendrite Characteristics • Most neurons have many dendrites • Short and highly branched • Transmits information to the cell body
  5. 5. THE SOMA OR CELL BODY  The soma is where the signals from the dendrites are joined and passed on. The soma and the nucleus do not play an active role in the transmission of the neural signal. Instead, these two structures serve to maintain the cell and keep the neuron functional.  The support structures of the cell include mitochondria, which provide energy for the cell, and the Golgi apparatus, which packages products created by the cell and secretes them outside the cell wall.
  6. 6. THE AXON HILLOCK  The axon hillock is located at the end of the soma and controls the firing of the neuron. If the total strength of the signal exceeds the threshold limit of the axon hillock, the structure will fire a signal (known as an action potential) down the axon.  The axon hillock is also the part of the neuron that has the greatest density of voltage- dependent sodium channels. This makes it the most easily-excited part of the neuron
  7. 7. THE AXON  The axon is the elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings and transmits the neural signal.  Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator.  These myelinated axons transmit information much faster than other neurons.  Axon Characteristics • Most neurons have only one axon • Transmit information away from the cell body • May or may not have a myelin covering
  8. 8. SCHWANN CELLS AND MYELIN SHEATH  Schwann cell are also an important component of neuron cells  Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath.  And as mentioned earlier these myelinated axons transmit information much faster than other neurons  Plus the myelin sheath provides protection and insulation to an axon