Basic cell structure


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Basic cell structure

  1. 1. Basic Cell Structure
  2. 2. Cells <ul><li>Basic building blocks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of cell morphology is critical to the study of biotechnology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cell <ul><li>Smallest living unit of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>Grow, reproduce, use energy, adapt, respond to their environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cell <ul><li>Many cannot be seen with the naked eye </li></ul><ul><li>A cell may be an entire organism or it may be one of billions of cells that make up the organism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cells <ul><li>Divided and classified in many ways </li></ul><ul><li>One common classification method is the presence or absence of a cell necleus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nucleus <ul><li>Relatively large structure with a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Directs cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Some simple single celled organisms lack a nucleus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Nucleus <ul><li>Prokaryotes – have no nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes – have a nucleus </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Single celled organism </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom Monera </li></ul><ul><li>Lacks a cell nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Internal structure is less organized than other cells </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Genetic info needed is within the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Two most common – blue green bacteria and true bacteria </li></ul>
  10. 10. Blue green bacteria <ul><li>Have ability to produce their own food like plants </li></ul><ul><li>Most bacteria get their food from other sources </li></ul>
  11. 11. Prokaryotes <ul><li>Less complex than eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Still have many of the basic internal characteristics </li></ul>
  12. 12. Common prokaryote structures <ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosomal material </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane and wall </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Some have flagellum for mobility </li></ul>
  13. 13. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Organism made up of cells that have a nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>May be single celled – Kingdom Protista </li></ul><ul><li>May have billions of cells like plant and animal kingdoms </li></ul>
  14. 14. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Single celled eukaryotes include paramecia, euglena, and diatoms </li></ul>
  15. 15. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Typically are highly organized </li></ul><ul><li>Infinite number of shapes and purposes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Eukaryotes <ul><li>Human body has at least 85 different cell types </li></ul><ul><li>All eukaryotes have a number of structures in common </li></ul>
  17. 17. Common structures <ul><li>Organelles – smaller parts of the cell with specific funtions </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane – acts as a gatekeeper </li></ul>
  18. 18. Cell membrane <ul><li>Controls what enters and leaves the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Plants, algae and bacteria typically have a tough outer structure known as a cell wall </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cell wall <ul><li>Provides additional structure and protects the cell from pressure caused by movement of water </li></ul><ul><li>Animal cells do not have walls </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Organelles are surrounded by a jelly like substance </li></ul><ul><li>Primary component is water </li></ul>
  21. 21. Nucleus <ul><li>Largest and most identifiable part of the cell </li></ul>
  22. 22. Other organelles <ul><li>Ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Golgi bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul>
  23. 23. Other organelles <ul><li>Lysosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>Chloroplasts in plants </li></ul>
  24. 24. Nucleus <ul><li>Brain of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Site of much of the manipulation done in biotechnology </li></ul>
  25. 25. Nucleus <ul><li>Controls activity of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Round or oval structure </li></ul><ul><li>Typically found in the middle of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Appears darker than surrounding material </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nucleus <ul><li>Surrounded by a membrane that controls passage of materials in and out of the area </li></ul>
  27. 27. Nucleus <ul><li>Contains DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is located on chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Most organisms are diploid – have tow chromosomes for each trait </li></ul>
  28. 28. Diploid <ul><li>Humans – 23 pair </li></ul><ul><li>Goldfish – 90 chrms, 45 pair </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cytoplasmic Organelles <ul><li>Organelles are required for proper cell function </li></ul><ul><li>Ribosome – make proteins for cellular use and communication </li></ul><ul><li>May be attached to endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul>
  30. 30. Endoplasmic reticulum <ul><li>Layered membraneous </li></ul><ul><li>Make and transport proteins </li></ul>
  31. 31. Vacuole <ul><li>Large organelle, without specific shape </li></ul><ul><li>Store waste or raw materials used in synthesis of proteins </li></ul>
  32. 32. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Golgi apparatus </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to endo. Ret. </li></ul><ul><li>Look like a thick elastic band that has been folded several times </li></ul>
  33. 33. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Adds modifications to unfinished proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Makes lysosomes </li></ul>
  34. 34. Lysosome <ul><li>Small round </li></ul><ul><li>Store enzymes that break down food into chemical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy cell organelles and the cell itself </li></ul>
  35. 35. Mitochondria <ul><li>Energy factories </li></ul><ul><li>Rod shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Change food into molecules that can be used for energy </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mitochondria <ul><li>Contain DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Can replicate themselves </li></ul>
  37. 37. Chlorplast <ul><li>Found in plants and some other organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Contain chlorophyll </li></ul>
  38. 38. Cellular processes <ul><li>Respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Osmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  39. 39. Respiration <ul><li>Cells break down carbohydrates and other molecules to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidation of glucose is one of most common forms </li></ul>
  40. 40. Respiration <ul><li>Breaking down of sugar into water, carbon dioxide, and energy </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is used to do the work of the cell </li></ul>
  41. 41. Osmosis & Diffusion <ul><li>Transport of raw materials, wastes, and synthesized materials out of the cell </li></ul>
  42. 42. Diffusion <ul><li>Movement of molecules, especially gases and liquids from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration </li></ul>
  43. 43. Osmosis <ul><li>Specific type of diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of water through a membrane from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration </li></ul>
  44. 44. Equilibrium <ul><li>Diffusion and osmosis happen to enable a cell to reach equilibrium </li></ul>
  45. 45. Cellular reproduction <ul><li>Three ways </li></ul><ul><li>Fission </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul>
  46. 46. Fission <ul><li>Prokaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Cell grows larger and makes a second copy of its DNA </li></ul><ul><li>At some point the cell membrane divides the cell by the growth of a transverse septum </li></ul>
  47. 47. Fission <ul><li>Two new cells are formed as the division grows inward from either side of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Two cells now called “daughter cells” </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes known as “binary fission” </li></ul>
  48. 48. Mitosis <ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Requires 6 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mitosis <ul><li>Creates cells that are identical to the original cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the entire compliment of chromosomes existing in pairs - diploid </li></ul>
  50. 50. Meiosis <ul><li>Division of sex cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Meiosis I: Interphase I, prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis I </li></ul>
  51. 51. Meiosis <ul><li>Meiosis II </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase II, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II, cytokinesis II </li></ul>
  52. 52. Meiosis <ul><li>Each cell receives one chromosome from each pair randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting cells have half the normal number of Chromosomes - haploid </li></ul>