History study

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Needs Work but good for educational readers and help from various websites as well as my own work, more will be added next year as we cover them in class

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History study

  1. 1. Keith Kiely History Study Keith Kiely29-Feb-12
  2. 2. Keith Kiely - Home Rule Home Rule Timeline 1870 Home Rule Association founded by Issac Butt. Soon renamed the Home Rule League. Gladstone introduces the First Land Act. 1875 Charles Stuart Parnell elected M.P. for Co. Meath. Shortly after assumes leadership of Home Rule League from Butt. 1879 Michael Davitt forms the Irish Land League working for land reform and opposing evictions Parnell becomes its President. 1880 Gladstone introduces Second Land Act. 1884 Reform Act leads to increase in the electorate. G.A.A. founded. 1885 First Home Rule Bill defeated in the House of Commons.29-Feb-12
  3. 3. Keith Kiely The Conservatives campaign against Home Rule - Lord Randolph Churchill tells an Orange rally in 1886 that "Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right". 1889 Parnell named in O‟Shea divorce petition. Home Rule League splits. John Redmond, John Dillon and William O‟Brien lead different factions over the next twelve years. 1893 Second Home Rule Bill passed by the House of Commons but stopped by the House of Lords. Gaelic League founded by Douglas Hyde. 1901 Irish Parliamentary Party reunites Home Rule M.P.‟s under the leadership of John Redmond 1903 Wyndham Land Act. 1909 Birrells Land Act. Budget Crisis in Britain when the House of Lords rejects the Government‟s budget. 1910 Two general elections leave the Irish Parliamentary Party holding the balance of power. Veto in the House of Lords is abolished. Two year delay allowed. 1912 Third Home Rule Bill is passed by the House of Commons but again rejected by the House of Lords. Home Rule to become law in 1914.29-Feb-12
  4. 4. Keith Kiely The Irish Volunteers: Eoin McNeill said: Irish Nationalists should follow the example of Ulster Unionist and form their own organisation to defend Home Rule The IRB told McNeill to hold a meeting in Dublin to form that organisation. They called the organisation The Irish Volunteers. It pretty soon had 75 or more members The popularity of The Volunteers threatened the position of the Irish Home Rule Party.29-Feb-12
  5. 5. Keith Kiely Redmond forced the members of the Home Rule Party to join the volunteers and he took over The success of the Ulster Volunteers in getting arms gave the Irish Volunteers some hope in seizing some to ship abroad. It looked as if there would be a civil war of the Home Rule Bill came in as a law. This crisis came to end at the start of the First World War and The Volunteers split. John Redmond thought that it was a perfect time for them to show loyalty to England and join the English army to help them in the war. A lot of people supported Redmond and became known as The National Volunteers. The minority of the people who did not support Redmond‟sviews continued as The Irish Volunteers and it was mainly ran by the IRB. These all planned on a rebellion against England while they were at war in the First World War The First Sinn Fein Arthur Griffithwas the founder of the Sinn Fein Party. He was a Republican but didn‟t think that people would support the rebellion. He published an article The Resurrection of Hungary. It involved the way Hungary got their parliament and government. It involved: Dual Monarchy- separated parliaments but same king/queen. Parliamentary Abstention- not in the Westminster but separate Passive Resistance Protectionism All of this became the policy of Sinn Fein. By Sinn Fein had branches It allowed women in the party as full members The party won seats at local elections29-Feb-12
  6. 6. Keith Kiely In Sinn Fein was in decline: Griffith was not easy to go on with His newspaper now called Sinn Fein had financial trouble Home Rule had the balance of power so it seemed more likely World War One Impact on Ireland: The Home Rule Crisis of - war ended. The Third Home Rule Bill became law in September but was suspended till the war was over. Carson agreed with the unionists that this would be accepted understanding that it would not operate Carson called the Ulster Volunteers to join the British Army This would show loyalty to the British Empire It would guarantee consideration of the Ulster Question after the war. About Ulster Volunteers joined the British Army along with some southern unionists.29-Feb-12
  7. 7. Keith Kiely Also members of the National Volunteers joined the army They were not given their own regiments or emblems They wanted to make sure Home Rule would be accepted after the war They joined also for personal and possibly religious beliefs Over overall joined the army and about or more was killed in the duty of war. The enlisting numbers then started to decline around 5. Industry: The economy of Belfast and north-east Ulster all benefited in the increased demand their ships but the rest of the country was not developed enough to develop Farming: these benefited from the increase in demand of food from Britain Inflation: overall prices increased but wages did not improve during the war The First World War added to the decline of Redmond and the Home Rule Party Conscription:the British army needed more solders so the government introduced conscription for the year29-Feb-12
  8. 8. Keith Kiely The 6 Rising Revived IRB: In the twentieth century the IRB was revived. They thought their physical force would do well in the Rising or Rebellion. Volunteers Split: They split because of Ireland in the First World War. The Minority of them were IRB Ruled and Ran the Volunteers were run by Eoin McNeil. They provided the armed group needed in the Rising. Britain in War: Ireland believed that when Britain was at war with Germany was the best opportunity to fight them and organising the Rebellion against them. Blood Sacrifice: Some of the leaders including Patrick Pearcebelieved that the Rising did not need military success. All it needed was the deaths of Irish people to revive the nation. Planning: The military council was led by Pearce Plunkett Ceannt MacDonagh Clarkeand MacDermott. They made sure it was kept secret to the Supreme Council. The Military Council wanted to ensure the Rebellion plans of the Easter Rising was kept secret and told nobody because they believed previous rebellions were unsuccessful because of the G-Men Spies29-Feb-12
  9. 9. Keith Kiely German Help: The Military Council needed weapons. They sent Roger Casement over to Germany to try retrieving some. His mission was: To form an Irish brigade To get arms off Germany The Plan Goes Wrong: The German AUD sent Arms to Ireland but they were captured by the British at a Kerry Harbour. Now there were little or no arms. The Military Council had a plan to trick MacNeill by letting him believe his Volunteers were going to be arrested in order for him to help fight the British. MacNeill found out that it was not true and the letter had been forged and also the aud was captured and cancelled his help. Now the Military council had no men or arms so the plans of the Rising were fallen apart to ruins. It was moved to Easter Monday and just a Dublin Rising and not nationwide. The Rising: On Easter Monday around 6 volunteers and Citizen Army men marched the Streets of Dublin near Liberty Hall. Some of the men took the GPO where they set up the headquarters. The main ideas were: A Revolutionary Tradition Demanding a Republic29-Feb-12
  10. 10. Keith Kiely Results About 5 people were killed and it was mainly ordinary civilians‟ and 5 injured during this. The executions and arrests had a huge influence: It declined Home Rule and rose Shin Fein The idea of a republic took over Home Rule a solution for the Irish Question. There was an increase of an anti-English feeling29-Feb-12
  11. 11. Keith Kiely The War of Independence The War of Independence was a war between Sinn Fein and the British Government. Aspects of war: Political Aspect: they used passive resistance Military Aspect: they used guerrilla warfare The first Dail met on 1st of January It included: The Declaration of Independence The provisional Constitution of a Republic A message to the free nations of the world to get recognition Activities of the Dail: Aurthur Griffith- Minister for Home Affairs Cathal Brugha- Minister for Defence Michael Collins- Minister for Finance W.T Cosgrave- Minister for Local Government Sinn Fein had a number of problems in setting up the government: They lacked experience The British Government banned the Dail so there was no conflict with the British Government There was difficulty in decisions about power and control They lacked money De Valera spent most of the war in America and got little or no recognition for Ireland from the Republican Parties29-Feb-12
  12. 12. Keith Kiely Role of Collins The IRA looked at Collins for instructions and not Minister for Defence Collins was determined that spies and informers would not betray the IRA and he set up a Spy Network He managed to evade arrests Collins got his Squad to murder English spies and G-Men Early During the British government paid little attention to Ireland because they were involved in the Paris Peace Conference The Black and Tans and the Auxiliaries came into Ireland and they were very difficult to deal with. The Ordinary people began to fear and Hate the Black and Tans. This increased the support in the IRA General Macready Commander in chief of British forces in Ireland was giving the authority to arrest and imprison people thought to be in the IRA without trial. The Government of Ireland Act The Parliament in Belfast controlled the six counties The country was partitioned The Unionist accepted the act Sinn Fein rejected it Flying Columns: In late as the IRA formed a new group called the Flying Columns. The leaders of them included: Tom Barry Sean MacEoin Liam Lynch. They were a group of men that staged hit and run ambushes on British forces29-Feb-12
  13. 13. Keith Kiely In December a bunch of auxiliaries burned the centre of Cork City. The British Government enforced martial law on the streets and arrests had weakened the IRA. Truce: Factors towards Truce: Public opinion in Britain and abroad favoured peace Lloyd George had to Fully Defeat IRA or negotiates Sinn Fein won a good number of seats in the election De Valera was also under pressure to make peace Irish people was growing tied in conflict Lloyd George made a speech at the opening of the Northern Ireland Parliament which began the process The truce became in operation on June 6th Sinn Fein won the right to negotiate directly with the British government By agreeing to talk to Lloyd George de Valera also agreed to work out a compromise The Anglo-Irish Treaty Preliminary negotiations July-October:29-Feb-12
  14. 14. Keith Kiely Negotiations began between De Valera and Lloyd George. They met four times in London De Valera wanted a county republic Lloyd George wanted Ireland to stay in the Commonwealth He also wanted the government in Northern Ireland Lloyd George invited the Irish Delegation to London to talk and negotiate the Irish demands and see what could be reconciled. The Irish Delegation as envoy plenipotentiaries De Valera was not included in the delegation because: He was head of state and didn‟t want to leave He was needed in Dublin to keep all the extremist republicans in place He would give the delegation and excuse to refer British proposals to Dublin Later it was believed that that Lloyd George would not want to give Ireland a full Republic and De Valera knew this and didn‟t want to go and get the blame. Negotiations by delegation October-December: De Valera was excluded as he was because he was the only person who knew and understood the external affairs and negotiated with Lloyd George The negations were held in London at the centre of the British Empirewhich gave psychological advantage to the British. It was a long serving British Delegate that included long serving politicians including “The Welsh Wizard” Lloyd George was also at the Paris Peace Conference. The Issues: How much independence Ireland gets and how much is linked to Britain Will Ireland have 6 counties or counties? Will Ireland join with British Enemies if they have independence?The Negotiations: The early parts of the negotiations were difficult and split up into sub-committees. There was an agreement on the British naval bases in Ireland and the trade and29-Feb-12
  15. 15. Keith Kiely Portions of UK debt that had to be paid by Ireland. De Valera‟s External Association was proposed by the Irish delegation and was rejected Because it meant leaving the empire and agreeing in alliance with the treaty. There was an eventual agreement on the Oath of Allegiance for Dail members. The oath was recognised as a domination status for Ireland The terms of the Anglo Irish Treaty: Domination status for the south of Ireland Known as Irish Free Sate Oath of Allegiance for the Dail Boundary commission between Ireland and the North Treaty Debates The cabinet debated the Anglo Irish treaty. The people that were for the Anglo Irish Treaty were:29-Feb-12
  16. 16. Keith Kiely Michael Collins Arthur Griffith W.T Cosgrave The people who were against the treaty were: De Valera Cathal Brugha Stack The IRA was divided: Some did not want normal everyday life People thought treaty was a sell out People influenced by Collins The IRB was hugely in favour of this treaty because of the influence of Collins. The Anti-Treaty Case Extreme republicans were against the treaty because it did not give the full demands of the full republic. They said: Republic declared in 6 Proclamation Delegates that negotiated this treaty betrayed the republic They would fight a war if necessary Would not accept the decision of the Dail if they favoured the treaty Moderate republicans that rejected the treaty were because: They thought a better deal could have been negotiated They felt British would interfere with Irish affairs They felt Ireland would not be able to follow an independent foreign policy The Pro-Treaty Case Those who were in favour of the treaty said: It was the best deal we could get29-Feb-12
  17. 17. Keith Kiely A new war would fail as all the main leaders were now well known and would not be able to surprise Britain and also would get less support They believed it was a good step towards getting a full republic They also believed domination status was better than Home Rule The Vote Six women TD‟s spoke against the treaty There was a reference to partition as they believed the Boundary Commission would end it During this many people were influenced by the amount of people that wanted peace. The final vote tally was in favour of the treaty Irish Civil War29-Feb-12
  18. 18. Keith Kiely Causes: Some of the IRA was attached to the ideal full republic and the treaty did not give them the ideal republic. They swore an oath to the republic They fought for a republic and some died for the republic The IRA had already operated under Sinn Fein and the Dail during the War of Independence. The commanders of the flying columns fought the war independently They claimed success in the War of Independence De Valera campaigned against the treaty in his speeches that were very extreme Collins and De Valera made an election pact to fight the election together and form a coalition government afterwards. Collins called off this pact just before the election. Pro- Treaty candidates‟ won the election easily. This showed that the majority of people supported the treaty The election results gave Collins the go-ahead to attack the Four Courts garrison The anti-treaty forces kidnapped General O‟Connell of the Free Sate Army and this gave Collins and excuse to attack the Four Courts. The Civil had now begun The pro-treaty were called the Regulars The anti-treaty were called the Republicans The fighting lasted about a week. The leader of the Four Courts was captured. Cathal Brugha was killed on O‟Connell‟s St The centre of the city was destroyed twice in 6 years The Republicans retreated into Munster near Limerick and Waterford.29-Feb-12
  19. 19. Keith Kiely More people joined the Regulars and forces came up to 6 and had a successful attack on Limerick and Waterford. The Civil War became very bitter as the Republicans used guerrilla warfare The government used internment to hold anti-treaty prisoners and the war ended when Liam Lynch the chief of staff in the IRA was shot dead. Impact: About people died soldiers and civilians The centre of the city of Dublin was destroyed There was still bitterness after the war The economy had been disrupted again like to was in the 6 Rising and then again in the War of Independence29-Feb-12
  20. 20. Keith Kiely Language Religion and Education Language Education and Culture: The Free State government wanted to revive the Gaelic culture and the education system was the main part of achieving this. Eoin MacNeill was Minister for Education and he changed the curriculum to achieve this: Irish language and history had to be thought in primary schools and the Irish had to be thought at least one hour a day. The teachings in history was designed to show the patriotic people of Ireland A School Attendance Act was passed to make sure that there was a full school attendance up to the age of In second level education only about per cent of people attended New examinations at intermediate and Leaving Certificate were now introduced There was special grants to schools that did all their teachings in Irish and extra marks given to students that do their exams in Irish Irish came compulsive to learn if you wanted any civil job29-Feb-12
  21. 21. Keith Kiely Religion: The Catholic Church was concerned with their morals on attitude and sexual matters with the effect of the radio and the English press. The Bishops wrote pastorals attacking drinking violence gambling and modern dancing Modern fashions were criticised because of the danger of immortal behaviour Most of the laws made followed the issues of the church like on divorce drinking and censorship Films could be cut off if it went against the church morals Opening hours of bubs was cut back Divorce was banned When De Valera came into power in he was a devout catholic The Eucharistic Congress was organised successfully De Valera made a holy year pilgrimage to Rome in The government put a tax on foreign newspapers But on political matters De Valera took an independent line on the entry of the Communist Solvent Union After the Second World War the catholic religion strengthened as it became more conservative29-Feb-12
  22. 22. Keith Kiely The Eucharistic CongressThe Eucharistic CongressThe Eucharistic Congress is an International Catholic religious festival bringingtogether clergy, religious and laity from all over the world. The 31st EucharisticCongress was held in Dublin in 1932 to celebrate the 1,500 year anniversary of St.Patrick‟s arrival in Ireland. The Congress was the idea of the Cumann na nGaedhealgovernment but took place after Fianna Fail won the 1932 General Election.The Events of the CongressJuly 1932 saw the new Irish State entertain thousands of churchmen who came fromall over the world for the 31st Eucharistic Congress. There were incredible scenes ofdevotion and a papal mass in the Phoenix ParkA live papal broadcast from Rome wasdone and it was felt to be a milestone for all who attended it.The Congress DemonstratedThe importance of the Catholic religion.The close relationship between politicians and the Catholic Church. The confidence ofthe new state as it deployed its resources to provide a spectacular occasion.The monolithic nature of Catholicism - the implications for minority groups such asProtestants and for relations with Protestant-dominated north.Importance for Free StateIreland sought to organise a Congress to be even more impressive than the previousone in Chicago.City of Dublin underwent makeover for purposes of international publicity andcelebration. Spotlights, illuminations, decorations show enormous effort in planningand preparing for event.Importance of Catholicism to Ireland Catholics 93% of population following partition; Protestant-dominated north isseparate. Catholic Church hierarchy saw chance to make a Catholic state; it was in ahomogeneous state in which the Church could impart social and moral stability. Politicians wanted to build a state that would reflect Catholic values which almosteveryone shared. Independent Ireland could assert independence of England as the dominant Protestantpower. Catholicism was a binding force unifying Ireland after the scars of the divisionscaused by the Civil War. It demonstrated that the collective loyalty of the Irish people was to the Catholicismalthough the Constitution of 1922 forbade the government from giving privilege toany one faith over another It paved the way for the Constitution of 1937.29-Feb-12
  23. 23. Keith Kiely Catholic Church has enormous impact on society in many ways: the running ofhospitals, schools, orphanages etc as well as missionary efforts overseas and help forthe poor.Church and PoliticsThe organisation of the Eucharistic Congress involved both Cosgrave and deValeraDe Valeras speech emphasised the persecution the Irish had suffered for Catholicism.Politicians share a platform with clergymen.The Catholic Church “forgets” about the condemnation of Civil War violence and theexcommunication of de Valera and co-operates with politicians.The influence of John Charles McQuaid - later Bishop of DublinThis close relationship was evident in the legislation of the period, for example:TheIntoxicating Liquor Act 1924, Censorship of Films Act 1923, Censorship ofPublications Act 1929, The Criminal Law Amendment Act banning contraceptives,The Public Dance halls Act and 1937 Constitution.DivisionsIt was repugnant to northern Protestant identity because of the stress on Catholicinfallibility which clashed with Protestant regard for the conscience of the individual.It showed the need for a border in many Protestant eyes. There were attacks onnorthern Catholics coming south for the occasion. Southern Protestants felt that this was an expression of Catholic triumphalism thatemphasised their minority status.29-Feb-12
  24. 24. Keith Kiely The Emergency Neutrality Ireland had to declare their neutrality when World War Two started. The years to come in Ireland in this war timebecame known as The Emergency The Emergency Powers Act that gave the government extensive powers to secure public safety and the preservation of the state. Why was Ireland neutral This was a huge test for Ireland to show that they had good self-determination and assertiveness to their independence.This was all part of a very complex political strategy. Neutrality was also the policy of national unity. It was a popular among the majority of the Irish population.Irelands military weakness was glaringly exposed because of return of the Treaty ports in. De Valera was disillusioned with the League of Nations and had to believe that small nations should not be the pawns of larger nations. De Valera claimed that partition remained a continued affront to Ireland and that military collaboration could not come about whilst Ireland remained divided. Britain briefly was willing to consider the possibility of reunification. Dealing with the British Neither Germany nor Britain gambled on invading Ireland. Britain had use of Irish bases and felt that invasion would present more problems than it would solve. After the immediate threat to Britain receded and De Valera took a strong line with the IRA in order to avoid the angering Britain. 5 IRA members spent the war interned in the Curragh. De Valera insisted that Hempels the German ambassador radio transmitter was shut down in because American and British pressure. John Maffey the British representative developed a good working relationship with De Valera. De Valera and the US David Gray the American representative disliked De Valera and Irish neutrality The American Note demanded that the German and Japanese missions in Dublin were to be closed in order to prevent details of Normandy Landings leaking out. De Valera refused – the Allies imposed a ban on travel to and from Britain until after D-Day.De Valeras biggest blunder was signing the book of condolence on Hitlers death29-Feb-12
  25. 25. Keith Kiely Censorship The censor stopped anyone from publishing information that would favour one side over another. Knowledge of the war was limited to the public knowledge. All accounts of Nazi atrocities were denounced as propaganda and the Irish lived in ignorance – most of the press colluded willingly in this. Escaping the Bombs Neutrality was popular - civilian escaped the suffering elsewhere. The Belfast Blitz provided a demonstration of this. There were a few bombings on the South One dropped on the North Strand Dublin in May killing people Probably accidental but may have been a warning from the Germans about the consequences of siding with Britain.29-Feb-12
  26. 26. Keith KielyThe Apprentice Boys of Derry, one of the Protestant Loyal Orders, is based upon thisdefiant action of “no surrender”.New Apprentice Boys can only be initiated inside the city, in ceremonies in Augustand December each year.The order holds its main parade in Derry on 12 August to celebrate the relief of thecity and the end of the siege.Usually some 10,000-12,000 members take part.There is a lesser demonstration on 18 December, to mark the shutting of the gates,when an effigy is burned of Colonel Lundy, an officer who tried to negotiate thesurrender of the city in 1689.Even today those regarded as traitors to the unionist cause can be referred to asLundies.There were serious riots in Derry after the August 1969 march, and parades werebanned for the following two years.The then Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Brian Faulkner, an Apprentice Boyhimself, was expelled from the order in 1971 for being associated with the ban.In 1972 the parade was limited to the predominantly Protestant east side of the RiverFoyle, the Waterside area.Bogside ControversyThe order‟s general committee decided to call off the parade but many ApprenticeBoys gathered at the Waterside to be addressed by fellow member, the Reverend IanPaisley.The order was allowed to parade within the old walled city again in 1975, but werebanned from taking their usual route around the walls because they overlooked themainly Catholic Bogside.29-Feb-12
  27. 27. Keith KielyIn 1985 Unionists boycotted the local council for changing its name fromLondonderry to Derry.Two leading Apprentice Boys officials refused to support the boycott and weredropped by the order.James Guy, who was replaced as Lieutenant Governor, became Mayor of Derry in1987-8.In recent years, renewed controversy over parades by the Protestant Orange Order,and the Apprentice Boys, either through or near to Catholic nationalist areas have ledto clashes.Violent clashesLengthy negotiations have often been held in an effort by local community leadersand politicians such as SDLP leader John Hume to avoid violence.In August 1995 the „feeder parade‟, on its way to the main demonstration in Derry,resulted in violence on the nationalist lower Ormeau Road, in which 22 people wereinjured.In Derry, the Apprentice Boys marched around the city‟s historic walls for the firsttime in many years, and republicans who mounted a sit-down protest were removedby the RUC.29-Feb-12
  28. 28. Keith KielyWhy were British troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?The conflict between Northern Ireland is part of a larger conflict with a long-termhistory between the Irish Catholics and the Irish Protestants. The conflict betweenthese two groups became so violent that Ireland had to be divided. Some Catholicsfound themselves in the minority in the Protestant controlled North, where they weretreated unfairly sparking a series of Civil Rights marches in the late 1960‟s. Theviolence escalated, and this is why British Troops were sent to the area to maintain thepeace.The struggle between Irish Catholics and Irish Protestants had a long-term history.The Nationalist‟s wanted an Independent Ireland but their rebellion, the Easter Risingon 1916, failed because the British quickly defeated them. It was difficult to controlthe situation as hundreds of constables were resigning because they feared for theirlives. Both sides were constantly gunning down innocent people. The Government ofIreland Act 1920 failed miserably so it was decided on to create the Anglo-Irish treatywhich consisted of Ireland being free state and the Irish MP‟s would have to swear anoath of allegiance to the King. The British Army was to be removed but NorthernIreland was to be kept a part of the United Kingdom and a Boundary Commissionwould decide on the exact border between the North and South.Northern Ireland was in Protestant control. In the Northern Ireland parliament therewas always a majority of Unionist MP‟s, even when the Protestants were in aminority. The control was established in local councils by only restricting the vote tohouseholders and property owners. Boundaries were reconstructed to contain thehighest possible number of Unionist councillors. This was a method called“gerrymandering”. Catholics were treated with no respect and were left to live inpoverty. The living conditions were terrible and efforts were made to put the situation,affected by gerrymandering, right. The new Prime Minister of Northern Irelandpromised there would be reforms to help the Catholics, but they were slow to comeinto action. The Civil Rights Association in the 1960‟s was then formed.New groups were formed in an attempt to secure equality of civil rights. The PrimeMinister made attempts to improve the affairs between the two communities, but thismade the Protestants believe the Catholics were questioning their superiority. Inretaliation the Orange Order re-emerged, as did the UVF, which lead to Catholicbuildings being attacked and several Catholics were murdered. The police took littleaction and instead of protecting the Civil Rights marchers, some of them joined inattacking them in Derry. There was a demand for more Civil Rights not only inNorthern Ireland but also in the USA. The general culture of the 1960‟s/70‟s was thatof equality and rights, people believed they were not being treated fairly.The Catholics felt very threatened and realised they were to get no help from thepolice so they barricaded themselves in Derry‟s Bogside area. The situation worsenedand the the march by the Apprentice Boys which passed by the Catholic Bogsidebrought huge amounts of violence to the streets, this resulted in the “Battle ofBogside”. Riots and violence escalated and the new Prime Minister of NorthernIreland asked the Government of Westminster to send in troops to restore the order.The Downing Street Declaration was published on 19 August 1969 to calm the fearsof the Northern Ireland population; it stated “…there shall be full equality of29-Feb-12
  29. 29. Keith Kielytreatment for all citizens.” The Catholics were happy when the troops were sent intoNorthern Ireland because they were seen as their protectors.From the information in this essay I can conclude that the reason the British troopswere sent in was part of a long-term history. Ireland was partitioned in 1920 after along period of violence between the Protestants and the Catholics. This was expectedto bring an end to the hostility, but in fact the relations between them got worse, soeventually the troops had to be sent in.29-Feb-12
  30. 30. Keith Kiely The Colraine ControversyBackgroundJan. 1962 – Stormont officials meet the University Grants Committee todiscuss the establishment of a second university in Northern IrelandColeraine and Armagh begin to lobby to host the second universityMay 1963 – Stormont establishes a committee under Sir John Lockwoodto investigate higher education The Lockwood committee comprises 8 members, 4 from England and noCatholics. Lockwood Committee meets. Decides to meet fifteen times atthree/four week intervals.Terms of reference should cover academic, social and other factorsrelating to a suitable location and the choice of a specific site should beleft to the governmentMain CriteriaJan. 1964 – Lockwood Committee visits Queens University and confirmsneed for second universityFeb 1964 – University Grants Committee warns main cost is building ofhalls of residence. It advises main criteria be: Existence of higher technical institutions that are potential universities Regional planning needs Availability of sites of over 200 acres with room for further expansion The proximity of a town with reasonable facilitiesMagee College, DerryFeb 1964 – Lockwood Committee visits Magee College and members areunimpressed. They report “lack of dynamism” among college communitywho have no “clear idea about how the college should develop”29-Feb-12
  31. 31. Keith KielyMay 1964 – Senior official from Department of Commerce, Labour andNational Insurance tells Lockwood Committee that industrialists thinkDerry “too remote”.June 1964 – Lockwood Committee draws up its shortlist – MageeCollege is not included.Dec 1964 – Stormont cabinet recognises backlash of “killing Magee” andONeill aware of the support for Magee CollegeDerry being side-linedJan 1965 – Basil McFarland, former mayor of Derry, says he doubtsLockwood report will “do Derry much good” leading to foundation ofUniversity for Derry Committee 8th Feb 1965 – Large protest meetingheld at the Guildhall in Derry.10th Feb 1965 – Lockwood Report published recommending Coleraine assite for new university and Magee College to be closed down. Causedsurprise and angerProtests in Derry18th Feb 1965 – Two-minute silence in Derry with many shops andbusinesses closed in protest. Opposition is cross-community. 2,000vehicle motorcade to Stormont led by Derrys Unionist Mayor andNationalist MP.19th Feb 1965 – O‟Neill secretly meets „faceless men‟ – leading Unionistsin DerryMar 1965 – Lockwood shocked at bitter reaction to his decision and atlength of parliamentary debate took three days. Despite heateddiscussion and defection of two Unionists, ONeills government wins thevote 27:19.May 1965 – Magee College trustees agree to compromise – the collegewill become part of Coleraine University, with full degree courses –broken promises29-Feb-12
  32. 32. Keith KielyWhy was Coleraine Chosen?Most people in Derry felt that O‟Neill‟s government had influencedLockwood in choosing Coleraine. Lockwood denied that this hashappened. Sectarian tensions in Derry did not make it suitable for auniversity.Derry was 70% Catholic and Unionists were afraid any increase inCatholic numbers because of a university would upset their control of thecityCertain leading Unionists (faceless men) influenced O‟Neill againstchoosing DerryO‟Neill shared the view of Derry Unionists. He asked „If Derryindustrialised, how is it possible to insure against a radical increase inR.C. papes?‟Magee College was too small, in need of repair and no new site wasoffered.29-Feb-12
  33. 33. Keith Kiely The Sunningdale Agreement Background 1972 Whitelaw (N.I. Secretary) calls a meeting for all partiesBorder Poll to ease Unionist worries: boycotted by Nationalists but Unionists vote99% support for remaining part of the UKWhite paper from Whitelaw has 4 key components: Assembly Executive Council of Ireland Guarantee that Northern Ireland remains part of UK as long as majority want it. Splits in UnionismSplit in Unionists: Faulkner and moderate Unionists agree to White Paper and pledgetheir support called Pledged UnionistsThose Unionist against: Paisley and DUP, Craig and his Vanguard Party, OrangeOrder and the Unpledged Unionists led by Harry West. The SDLP welcome White Paper with cautious support Republicans reject it as it reinforces partition Election 64% in favour of PowerSharing, 36% againstAll factions of Unionists results: 26 seats for antiWhite Paper 24 seats for proWhitePaperFaulkner in difficulty trying to unite Unionists within his own party and the moreextreme Unionists. Talks BeginWhitelaw has great skill and patience as a negotiator Faulkner wants a Unionist majority in the Executive Council of Ireland agreed on and would have influence on policing andrepresentatives from the Dail. SDLP agree to end rate strike against internment During Talks Whitelaw called back to London and replaced by Francis Pym The Agreement6th Dec. meet in Sunningdale, Berkshire Liam Cosgrave, Taoiseach along with Garret Fitzgerald and Conor Cruise O Brienattend John Hume from SDLP chief negotiator for Nationalists gets real power for theCouncil of Ireland which could open doors for a United Ireland at a later date. Prime Minister Heath chairs the meeting and quickly gets impatient with Unionists. Irish Government agrees to give a verbal agreement on Northern Ireland remainingpart of the UK as long as the majority wanted it.Conference ends 9th Dec with Sunningdale Agreement29-Feb-12
  34. 34. Keith Kiely PowerSharing Executive1st Jan 1974, Faulkner as Chief Minister and Gerry Fitt (SDLP) as Deputy,PowerSharing Executive beginsOrange Order, DUP, Vanguard and Unpledged Unionists led by Harry West unite toform the United Ulster Unionist Council (UUUC) UUUC is created to resist powersharing and a Council of Ireland. Faulkner resigns as leader of the Unionist party after a motion on the Council ofIreland fails to pass at a meeting. He is replaced as leader by Harry West. Faulkner sets up the Unionist Party of Northern IrelandUnionists now deeply split and Faulkner becoming isolated IRA and Loyalist attacks continue British General ElectionElection called by Heath against the advice of the Executive who said it was badtiming UUUC use election as a referendum on Sunningdale and put forward oneantiAgreement candidate in each constituencyUUUC win 11 out of 12 of the Westminster seats (Paisley, Craig and West all win) Gerry Fitt the only proagreement candidate to win a seat. In Britain, Heath (Conservative) loses the election and Wilson becomes PM (Labour)Pym replaced by Meryln Rees as Northern Ireland Secretary (indecisive and not ascommitted a party)Assembly remained despite violent and abusive behaviour from antiagreementmembers Ulster Workers Council Strike Many Northern Ireland industries employed predominantly Protestant workers. The Ulster Workers Council was a group of loyalist workers who worked inshipbuilding, engineering and electricity generation. 15th May 1974, the UWC called a strike Loyalist paramilitaries became involved and workers were persuaded not to return towork. Road blockades were established and youths armed with clubs turned backlorries delivering milk, groceries or petrol. Strikers managed to cut electricity output by 60% and more factories were forced toclose. The British Army and Police stood by and did nothing. Many Protestants supported the strike.The UWC made sure needed supplies got through to Protestant areas in order to keepsupport for the strike in Protestant areas.Loyalists were strongly suspected of bomb attacks in Dublin and Monaghan in May. The Executive was isolated and had no control. Rees the Northern Ireland Secretary failed to stop the strikes. Faulkner tried to get the Dublin government to reduce the powers of the Council ofIreland and despite them agreeing to hold off implementing it was too late. Hospitals were about to close and the Executive resigned.The PowerSharing Executive had ended in failure.29-Feb-12
  35. 35. Keith Kiely Why Did The Sunningdale Agreement Fail?Northern Ireland Secretary Rees was unwilling to use the police and army to stop thestrike.The Labour party under Wilson who were in power were not as keen as theConservatives about the Agreement. The UWC strike brought the North to a halt. The Council of Ireland was greatly feared by the Unionists as they believed it wouldlead to a United Ireland.29-Feb-12
  36. 36. Keith Kiely ESSAY: Why did the Sunningdale Agreement fail to achieve powersharing?The inability of the Northern Ireland government under Brian Faulkner to stopparamilitary violence and the reaction of the Catholic population to internment led theBritish government to suspend the Northern Ireland government and impose directrule from Westminister in March 1972. William Whitelaw was appointed the firstSecretary of State for Northern Ireland. Whitelaw ordered the the dismantling ofbarracades in nogo areas around the North. This led to increased support for andparamilitary activity by the IRA.In an effort to undermine the paramilitaries on both sides Whitelaw published a WhitePaper for negotiations that would lead to a powersharing arrangement betweenNationalist and Unionist politicians. Almost immediately divisions arose in theUnionist Party over the measures proposed in the White Paper. Those like BrianFaulkner who supported the proposals became known as pledged Unionists, those inoppostion were known as unpledged Unionists and supported Harry West. Evenbefore the Sunningdale Agreement was negotiated the divisions that would lead to itsdownfall were begining to emerge.Within the Catholic community, Nationalists around the SDLP supported themeasures while Republicans opposed the White Paper on the basis that it reinforcedpartition. The SDLP actively engaged in the negotiations and called off the rent andrate strike that was taking place to protest against internment. A majority of Catholicssupported the efforts towards powersharing as it would be seen as a significantimprovement on the existing arrangements.The election to the new assembly resulted in almost twothirds of the electoratesupporting candidates in favour of a powersharing arrangement. However a majorityof the Unionists elected, based around the unpledged Unionists, Ian Paisleys DUP andWilliam Craigs Vanguard Party, were opposed to the proposals. This placed Faulknerin a very difficult position in trying to unite unionism in support of the agreement andfurther undermined the possibility of the powersharing arrangement succeeding.Among the proposals put forward during the negotiations was the establishment of aCouncil of Ireland that would involve Southern politicians and would have controlover a number of areas including policing. Despite outright opposition by the moreextreme Unionists the Sunningdale Agreement was signed in December 1973 and thepowersharing arrangement was due to be established on 1 January 1974. The Councilof Ireland was to be a major focus of opposition by Unionists opposed to theagreement. They regarded it as a step towards a united Ireland.The Orange Order, the DUP, the Vanguard Party and the unpledged Unionists cometogether and form the United Ulster Unionist Council (UUUC) to resist powersharingand the Council of Ireland. After the General Council of the Unionist Party rejectedthe Council of Ireland Faulkner resigned from the party and established the UnionistParty of Northern Ireland. His position within Unionism is now completelyundermined and the UUUC launch a campaign to bring an end to the powersharingarrangement.29-Feb-12
  37. 37. Keith KielyThe powersharing Executive received a further blow at the begining of February whenEdward Heath called a British General Election. The UUUC took the opportunity touse the election as a referendum on the Sunningdale Agreement. The antiagreementUnionists selected a single candidate to run in each constituency. The general electionresulted in the UUUC winning eleven of the twelve Westminster seats in the North.Ian Paisley, William Craig and Harry West were all elected. The only proagreementcandidate elected was Gerry Fitt of the SDLP in West Belfast. The election result putfurther pressure on the powersharing executive and particularly on Brian Faulkner andthe Unionists who supported him.Following the general election the Labour Party under Harold Wilson replaced theConservatives in government. The Labour Party appeared less committed to theSunningdale Agreement than the Conservatives. They reaslised the difficulties that thepowersharing executive was in and didnt want to be associated with its failure. Thenew Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, Merlyn Rees, was to prove indecisivewhen confronted with the opposition of Unionists.On 15 May the Ulster Workers Council called a general strike in an effort to bringdown the powersharing executive and the council of Ireland . Loyalist paramilitariesforced many workers to stay at home. Road blocks were established by Loyalistparamilitaries in many parts of the North. Merlyn Rees proved indicisive in dealingwith the strikers. When electricity supplies were interupted Faulkner decided that itwas no longer possible to maintain the powersharing executive. Along with his fellowUnionist ministers he resigned from the executive. The powersharing executivecollapsed and direct rule from Westminster was reimposed.The Sunningdale Agreement failed to achieve powersharing as a result of oppositionfrom Unionist politicians and the Protestant population. The continuing paramilitarycampaign of the IRA and Loyalist paramilitaries compounded the problem. Thepowersharing executive was finally brought to its knees by the strike organised by theUlster Workers council and imposed by Loyalist paramilitaries. Sean Farren, a leadingmember of the SDLP, has described the Sunningdale Agreement as an agreement toosoon.29-Feb-12

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