NOrthern IReland


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NOrthern IReland

  1. 1. Northern Ireland By: Maribel Colocho Zuleima Avalos
  2. 2. nationalism • The nationalism that is practiced in northern Ireland is the Ulster nationalism. • The Ulster unionist party dominates northern Ireland. • Ulster nationalism is a name given to a school of thought in Northern Irish politics that seeks the independence of northern Ireland from the United Kingdom without becoming part of the republic of Ireland. • Ulster nationalism represented a reaction from within Unionism and Loyalism to the uncertain position offered to the union by the British government.
  3. 3. Origins of Ulster • Began in 1946 when W. F. McCoy (a former cabinet in Government of Northern Ireland) advocated the Dominion of Ulster unionist Party. • He felt that the uncertain constitutional state of Northern Ireland made it vulnerable. • The term Ulster derives from one of the four traditional provinces; name is used to refer to Northern Ireland within unionism and Ulster loyalism. • He wanted to use the Ulster nationalism as a way to safeguard Northern Ireland's relationship with the United Kingdom.
  4. 4. Northern Ireland peace process
  5. 5. Government • Northern Ireland WAS an integral part of • As a result of the Good Friday Agreement the United Kingdom, but under the terms of 1998, a new coalition government was of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British it had a semiautonomous government. government formally transferring • In 1972, however, after three years of governing power to the Northern Irish sectarian violence between Protestants parliament. and Catholics that resulted in more than • David Trimble, Protestant leader of the 400 dead and thousands injured, Britain Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and winner suspended the Ulster parliament. of the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize, became • The Ulster counties were governed first minister. directly from London after an attempt to • The government has been suspended return certain powers to an elected four times since then; it has remained assembly in Belfast. suspended since Oct. 14, 2002.
  6. 6. • Northern Ireland WAS part of the United Kingdom, but under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, it had a semiautonomous government. • However, in 1972 after three years of violence between Protestant and Catholic, the United Kingdom suspended the Ulster parliament • The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 also known as the Belfast Agreement was a major political development in Northern Ireland peace process. • As a result of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, a new coalition government was formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British government formally transferring governing power to the Northern Irish parliament.
  7. 7. • Northern Ireland did not separate from • Ulster was part of Catholic the South until William Gladstone Ireland until the reign of Elizabeth presented, in 1886, his proposal for I (1558–1603) when, after home rule in Ireland. suppressing three Irish rebellions, • The Protestants in the North feared the Crown confiscated lands in domination by the Catholic majority. Ireland and settled the Scots • Industry, moreover, was concentrated Presbyterians in Ulster. in the North and dependent on the • A rebellion in 1641–1651, brutally British market. crushed by Oliver Cromwell, • When World War I began, civil war resulted in the settlement of threatened between the regions. Anglican Englishmen in Ulster. • Northern Ireland, however, did not become a political entity until the six • Subsequent political policy favoring counties accepted the Home Rule Bill of Protestants and disadvantaging 1920. Catholics encouraged further • This set up a semiautonomous Protestant settlement in Northern parliament in Belfast and a Crown- Ireland. appointed governor advised by a cabinet of the prime minister and 8 ministers, as well as a 12-member representation in the House of Commons in London.
  8. 8. Ca t h o l i c a n d P r o t e s t a n t •C o mmu n i t i e s When the Republic of Ireland gained • British troops were brought in to separate them but they became a Mo u n t sovereignty in 1922, relations target of Catholics, particularly by improved between North and South the IRA, which by this time had • Irish Republican Army (IRA), turned into a full-fledged terrorist outlawed in recent years, continued movement. the struggle to end the partition of • The goal of the IRA was to eject the British and unify Northern Ireland. Ireland with the Irish Republic to • In 1966–1969, rioting and street the south. fighting between Protestants and • The Protestants remained Catholics occurred in Londonderry, tenaciously loyal to the United Kingdom, and various Protestant fomented by extremist nationalist terrorist organizations pursued the Protestants, who feared the Unionist cause through violence. Catholics might attain a local • Various attempts at majority, and by Catholics representational government and demonstrating for civil rights. power-sharing foundered during the 1970s, and both sides were further • These confrontations became known polarized. as “the Troubles.” • Direct rule from London and the presence of British troops failed to
  9. 9. • Mairead Corrigan and Betty • In 1997, Northern Ireland made a Williams, founders of the Community significant step in the direction of of Peace People, a nonsectarian stemming sectarian strife. organization dedicated to creating • The first formal peace talks began peace in Northern Ireland. on Oct. 6 with representatives of • Intermittent violence continued, eight major Northern Irish political however, and on Aug. 27, 1979, an parties participating, a feat that in IRA bomb killed Lord Mountbatten itself required three years of as he was sailing off southern negotiations. Ireland. • Two smaller Protestant parties, • This incident heightened tensions. including extremist Ian Paisley's Catholic protests over the death of Democratic Unionists, boycotted the IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands in talks. 1981 fueled more violence. • Sinn Fein, the political wing of the • Riots, sniper fire, and terrorist IRA, won two seats in the British attacks killed more than 3,200 parliament people between 1969 and 1998. • Although the election strengthened • Among the attempts at the IRA's political legitimacy, it was reconciliation undertaken during the the IRA's resumption of the 17- 1980s was the Anglo-Irish month cease-fire, which had Agreement (1985), which, to the collapsed in Feb. 1996, that gained dismay of Unionists, marked the them a place at the negotiating
  10. 10. • A landmark settlement, the Good • The resounding commitment to the Friday Agreement of April 10, 1998, settlement was demonstrated in a came after 19 months of intensive dual referendum on May 22, 1998: negotiations. the North approved the accord by a • The accord called for Protestants to vote of 71% to 29%, and in the Irish share political power with the Republic 94% favored it. minority Catholics, and it gave the • In October, the Nobel Peace Prize Republic of Ireland a voice in was awarded to John Hume and Northern Irish affairs. David Trimble, leaders of the largest • In turn, Catholics were to suspend Catholic and Protestant political the goal of a united Ireland—a parties, an incentive for all sides to territorial claim that was the raison ensure that this time the peace d'être of the IRA and was written into would last. the Irish Republic's constitution— unless the largely Protestant North voted in favor of such an arrangement, an unlikely occurrence.
  11. 11. A New Coalition Government • In Dec. 1998 the rival Northern Ireland • If the IRA did not begin the politicians agreed on the organization and destruction of their weapons by Jan. contents of the new coalition government, 31, 2000 the Ulster Unionists but in June 1999, the peace process again hit an impasse when the IRA refused to threatened to withdraw from the disarm prior to the Assembly of Northern Northern Irish parliament, shutting Ireland's new provincial cabinet. down the new government. • Sinn Fein insisted that the IRA would • With the compromise , this only begin giving up its illegal weapons government was quickly formed, and after the formation of the new on Dec. 2, 1999, the British government; Unionists demanded government formally transferred disarmament first. governing power to the Northern • As a result, the Ulster Unionists Irish parliament. boycotted the Assembly session that would have nominated the cabinet to run • By the deadline, Sinn Fein had made the new coalition government. little progress toward disarmament • The nascent Northern Irish government =British government suspended was stillborn in July 1999. parliament on Feb. 12, 2000, and • By end of November, David Trimble, once again imposed direct rule. leader of the Ulster Unionists, abandoned • In July 2001, after issuing one last the “no guns, no government” position and took a difficult leap of faith in agreeing ultimatum to the IRA to begin to form a government prior to Sinn Fein's destroying its weapons stores, disarmament. Ulster Unionist leader Trimble resigned his post as first minister.
  12. 12. A New Coalition Government • Following Trimble's departure, the • The Council on Foreign Relations has IRA offered another vague and estimated that Protestant paramilitary groups have been open-ended disarmament plan, only responsible for 30% of the civilian to withdraw it. deaths in the Northern Irish • Oct. 23, days before Britain was to conflict. suspend the Assembly, Sinn Fein • The two main Protestant vigilante groups are the Ulster Volunteer leader Gerry Adams dramatically Force (UVF) and the Ulster Defence announced that the IRA had indeed Association (UDA). begun disarming. As a result, • Strongest during the 1970s, their Trimble was reelected as first ranks have since diminished. minister. • While Protestant paramilitaries have observed a cease-fire since the • British and Irish leaders hoped that IRA declared one, none of these Protestant paramilitary groups would groups have made any moves toward also begin to surrender their surrendering their weapons as weapons stipulated by the Good Friday Agreement.
  13. 13. Britain Resumes Direct Rule Of Northern Ireland • Oct. 14, the British government • In Nov. 2003 legislative elections, again assumed direct rule of the Ulster Unionists and other moderates lost out to Northern Northern Ireland, after the Ireland's extremist parties: Ian Unionists threatened to quit the Paisley's Democratic Unionists and Assembly in protest of suspected Sinn Fein. Power sharing between spying activity by the IRA. these antithetical parties was out of the question. • March and April 2003, negotiations • A $50 million bank robbery in Dec. were again used to reinstate the 2004 was linked to the IRA, and Northern Ireland Assembly. Sinn Fein's legitimacy as a political organization suffered a severe • But Sinn Fein's vague language, setback. weakly pledging that its “strategies • The brutal murder in Jan. 2005 of and disciplines will not be Belfast Catholic Robert McCartney inconsistent with the Good Friday by the IRA, and the campaign by his Agreement,” caused Tony Blair to five sisters to hold the IRA accountable, further tarnished the challenge Sinn Fein to make a clear, IRA's standing, even in Catholic unambiguous pledge to renounce communities that had once been IRA using the paramilitary for political strongholds. means
  14. 14. Britain Resumes Direct Rule Of Northern Ireland • July 28, 2005, the IRA announced that it was entering a new era in which it would unequivocally relinquish violence, give up its arms, and pursue its aims exclusively through political means. • Some Protestant groups, however, continued to doubt the veracity of the IRA's claims. • In Feb. 2006, the Independent Monitoring Commission (IMC), a watchdog agency monitoring Northern Irish paramilitary groups, reported that although the IRA “seems to be moving in the right direction,” dissident republican paramilitaries are still engaged in violence and crime. • On May 15, Northern Ireland's political parties were given six months (to Nov. 24) to come up with a power- sharing government or else sovereignty Provisional Irish Republican would revert indefinitely to the British government. Army
  15. 15. An Agreement For A Power-Sharing Government • Shortly after parliamentary elections in March 2007, Gerry Adams, the leader of Rev. Ian Paisley Sinn Fein, and Rev. Ian Paisley, the head of the Democratic Unionist Party, met face to face for the first time and hashed out an agreement for a power-sharing government. • The historic deal was put into place in May, when Paisley and McGuinness were sworn in as leader and deputy leader, respectively, of the Northern Gerry Adams Ireland executive government, thus ending direct rule from London.
  16. 16. Divi of Pow The Troubles