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Irish Civil War


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Irish Civil War

  1. 1. The Irish Civil War <ul><li>Leaving Cert History </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty and Partition 1912-1949 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Divisions <ul><li>The divisions between the Pro-Treaty and Anti-Treaty sides grew greater and often friends and families were divided. </li></ul><ul><li>The British began to withdraw from barracks and, as they did so, different groups of Pro-Treaty and Anti-Treaty IRA members competed to occupy them. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pro-Treaty IRA became know as the Free State Army or the Regulars. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anti-Treaty IRA were called the Republicans or the Irregulars. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Slide to Civil War <ul><li>A group of Republicans or Irregulars took over the Four Courts in the centre of Dublin </li></ul><ul><li>Collins was reluctant to take direct action against them </li></ul><ul><li>The election showed a decent majority in favour of the Treaty and this strengthened the government’s policy </li></ul><ul><li>Irregulars murder ed a British diplomat in London and kidnapp ed a Free State Army general </li></ul><ul><li>Collins attacked the Irregulars in the Four Courts using artillery borrowed from Britain </li></ul><ul><li>T hey surrendered but fighting continued in Dublin and Munster. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Republicans retreated south of an imaginary line from Limerick to Waterford, which became known as the Munster Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Both Limerick and Waterford were easily captured by the Free State Army </li></ul><ul><li>T he Irregulars were forced to withdraw to the countryside and revert to guerrilla warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Collins land ed Regular troops by sea to surround towns and cities in Munster </li></ul>The Munster Republic
  5. 5. <ul><li>Two of the most important leaders of the Free State government died within a short time of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Griffith died of a brain haemorrhage on 12/8/1922 </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Collins was killed in an ambush at Béal na mBláth, Co. Cork on 22/8/1922 </li></ul><ul><li>W.T. Cosgrave and Kevin O’Higgins became the new leaders of the Free State government </li></ul>The D eaths of Collins and Griffith
  6. 6. The end of the Civil War <ul><li>The Civil War dragged on and became increasingly bitter </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin O’Higgins had Rory O’Connor executed </li></ul><ul><li>O’Connor was best man at his wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Liam Lynch, leader of the Anti-Treaty IRA, was killed in the Knockmealdown Mountains in 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>T he Anti-Treaty IRA were running out of men </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Safety Act of 1923 which gave the Free State government the power to intern and execute Republicans </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Aiken replaced Lynch and, together with de Valera, called a halt to the violence in 1923 – there was no truce or treaty, simply a dumping of arms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Death and destruction: Over 900 people were killed and damage to property was around €38m. </li></ul><ul><li>Bitterness: The Civil War caused great bitterness which poisoned Irish politics for generations to come. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost leaders: The country lost some its best and ablest leaders, such as Collins and Griffith, when it needed them most. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Parties: The two largest political parties in Ireland grew out of the Pro- and Anti-Treaty sides – Cumann na nGaedhael (later Fine Gael) came from the Pro-Treaty side and Fianna Fáil from the Anti-Treaty side. </li></ul>The results of the Civil War
  8. 8. <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>