What is geology and scope of geology


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What is geology and scope of geology

  1. 1. Kaustubh J. Sane HJD Inst. OfTechnical Education & Research, Kera. What is Geology…??? & Branches & Scope of Geology… Engineering Geology (140604)
  2. 2. What is Geology…??? GEOLOGY  In short Geology meansTo study the Earth….. Earth The study of…
  3. 3. What is Geology…???  The study of Geology mainly concerns itself with the study of the earth’s origin,structure,composition & history (including the development of life),and the nature of the processes.So,it is also known as earth science.  This is a fascinating subject which feels the pulse of the earth.  It dealings with the outer solid shell of the earth composed of rocks, which is known as lithosphere.
  4. 4. View in side the Earth….
  5. 5. INNER CORE  Thought to be as hot as the surface of the Sun!  Solid  Composed of Iron and Nickel
  6. 6. Outer Core  Hot (but not as hot as the inner core)  Liquid  Composed of Iron and Nickel
  7. 7. Mantle  Still hot! – (but not as hot as the core!)  Largest layer  Composed of various materials  Solid and liquid  Made up of ultra basic rocks.
  8. 8. Crust  Its Cool  What we live on  Composed of rocks, various materials make up the crust  Solid or Liquid?
  9. 9. Scope of Geology…  It is a well established interdisciplinary branch of Science and Engineering has a scope in different fields as outlined below: (a) In Civil Engineering: Geology provides necessary information about the site of construction materials used in the construction of buildings, dams, tunnels, tanks, reservoirs, highways and bridges. Geological information is most important in planning phase (stage), design phase and construction phase of an engineering project. (b) In Mining Engineering: Geology is useful to know the method of mining of rock and mineral deposits on earth’s surface and subsurface.
  10. 10. Scope of Geology
  11. 11. (c) In GroundWater: Resources development geology is applied in various aspects of resources and supply, storage, filling up of reservoirs, pollution disposal and contaminated water disposal. (d) Land pollution. (e) Nuclear explosion. (f) Oceanography. (g) Space exploration.  In each of the above-mentioned fields Geology has to deal with an integral part of the earth. Scope of Geology…
  12. 12. Scope of Geology…  Basic objective of Engineering Geology,  It enables a civil engineer to understand engineering implications of certain conditions related to area of construction which are geological in nature.  It enable a geologist to understand a nature of geological information which is essential for safe design and construction of any civil engineering project.  It is best studied with reference to major activities of a professional civil engineer  Construction,Water resource development,Town and Regional planning.
  13. 13. Scope of Geology…  For all types of civil engineering structures geological information about the desired site is important.This information governs the vital importance in  Planning  Topographic map  Hydrological map  Geological map  Designing  Presence hard rock, their depth, and inclination with surface  Mechanical properties of rock  Presence of structural weakness  Position of ground water table and seismic nature of the area.  Construction.
  14. 14. Branches of Geology  Geology is such a huge and broad subject.The subject comprises a number of branches which deals with different objective in background.  The branches of Geology are as follows;  Economic geology is concerned with earth materials that can be used for economic and/or industrial purposes.  Mining geology is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an orebody, lode, vein which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.  Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels.  Engineering geology is the application of the geologic sciences to engineering practice for the purpose of assuring that the geologic factors affecting the location, design, construction, operation and maintenance of engineering works are recognized and adequately provided for.  Environmental geology, like hydrogeology, is an applied science concerned with the practical application of the principles of geology in the solving of environmental problems.
  15. 15. Branches of Geology  Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.[  Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them.  Geophysics is the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also the study of the Earth using quantitative physical methods.  Historical geology is the use of the principles of geology to reconstruct and understand the history of the Earth.  Hydrogeology is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
  16. 16. Branches of Geology  Mineralogy is a subset of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties ofminerals.  Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology).  Petrology is the branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution and structure of rocks.  Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
  17. 17. Branches of Geology  Sedimentology encompasses the study of odern sediments such as sand, mud (silt), and clay, and the processes that result in their deposition.  Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers and layering (stratification)  Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemicalphenomena. The term volcanology is derived from the Latin word vulcan.