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  1. 1. History-Science-Trade<br />Christian Carreon<br />History 140<br />
  2. 2. What is History?<br />Never take History for granted.<br />History can be thought of as a story that comes in many forms such as: writings, carvings, paintings, songs, and collections of events all interpreted in different ways.<br />History is verifiable, meaning one can bring up facts to support an event or time in history. However it cannot be tested like subjects in science.<br />These facts are either from a primary source or a secondary source<br />
  3. 3. What is History (The importance)<br />Although history is based upon facts, it is how people interpret these facts and learn from them to better the future that makes history important in itself.<br />Different people will have different viewpoints on certain areas of history, which should be highly considered, thus influencing how history is defined and written.<br />History is of utter importance and is a very powerful tool to the world and it is up to people how they can use this knowledge for their benefit.<br />
  4. 4. The Journey of Man<br />“Communicating with symbols provides an unambiguous sign of our modernity” (Klein, 5).<br />Symbolism has been a major aspect on the human race and has been over looked upon by society. It is the benchmark of our very existence and what makes us unique in this world.<br />Symbolism gives birth to human behavior and can be verified through many examples like artifacts such as, ancient beads, weaponry, and idols. Even in today’s society symbolism is seen everywhere in the world.<br />In essence, symbolism dawns human culture and determines the outcome of different societies. It is how humans make and interpret symbols that make them exclusive from each other. <br />
  5. 5. Journey of Man (Where we came from)<br />To some scientists, it is clearly unknown as to when humans became the planetary power .<br />One major theory is that the first humans were roaming the earth 115,000 years ago in Africa. These early humans are considered the “modern” individual which had many basic similarities that we have today.<br />It is still a mystery, but in theory, it is when humans became enlightened that sparked our dominance on earth and this was not possible without a mutation within our race.<br />Evidence for this “mutation” are still being found and it wont be an easy process. However despite the challenge, anthropologists agree that more research can be done if more sample were taken within the African populace, for they believe it is the key to our very existence.<br />
  6. 6. Catastrophe<br />It is believed that many years ago a very catastrophic event happened that marked a dramatic time in the changing of our world. <br />It is said during this time, something happened to the world’s climate where clouds of dust covered the earth, rain the color of blood swept the ground, the sun began to go dark, and bitter cold took over the land for two years (PBS, 1).<br />After this climate change, drought, plague and famine occurred and caused many deaths throughout the world.<br />Explanations to this catastrophe can be revealed through the observation of tree rings. Through these observations scientists were able to tell how the weather was like for the past seven and a half thousand years to our time.<br />Similar tree ring patterns are being found around the world showing that there were similar climate conditions around the same time, thus backing evidence that there was indeed a catastrophic event that plagued the earth many years ago.<br />
  7. 7. Catastrophe (cont.)<br />There are findings that major volcano eruptions could have taken place causing volcanic dust to fill the air, thus blocking out the sun.<br />Due to the vast pollution of dust in the sky, drought occurred killing thousands and thousands of people.<br />This could have led to the downfalls of vast empires and civilizations in our previous world such as the Roman Empire.<br />However as a result, new births of civilizations and beliefs were formed from this dramatic event in our history.<br />
  8. 8. Changing Interpretations of America’s Past<br />It is generally believed that the Americas were not populated until the arrival of Columbus. However Native Americans were here thousands of years prior to the invasion of Europe.<br />When the Europeans arrived there were major outbreaks of disease towards the Native Americans who had developed no immunity and eventually died. Disease affected the Indians of Peru, the Incas and much more.<br />Throughout Europe’s invasion it is estimated that 95 percent of the Natives of America were wiped out, due to war and disease.<br />
  9. 9. New Interpretations of Amazonia Before 1492<br />Deep in the Amazon in Brazil new discoveries are being made about civilizations that existed during the pre-Columbian era.<br />The geographical changes of Amazonia were not done by natural forces, but had to be done by civilizations.<br />Researchers estimate that more than half the forest in the region was cut down to be replaced by fruit orchards and fields of cassava (which was a major part of the Amazonia diet).<br />It is said that the Upper part of the Xingu region was hard to reach by the Europeans. It was not until the mid 1700s that Europeans arrived in the area and began polluting the land.<br />Evidence for these discoveries:<br />Network of 1000 year old towns and villages<br />19 villages in a 15 mile square region at the head waters of the Xingu River connected by systems of broad parallel highways.<br />Findings of bits and pieces of artifacts <br />
  10. 10. The World and Trade<br />Before Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492, there was not that much knowledge about the earth itself, such as different continents and the very different cultures found within these continents. However Columbus did put a big impact on how people viewed the world after his time and it has forever changed the world itself.<br />Europe, China, South Asia, and the middle east all had there own individual kinds of government and lived by accordingly. Locations of these great lands determined how they would progress throughout history and how their own cultures developed.<br />The Europeans seemed to have higher technology due their location and improved their shipping gaining an advantage due to trade with other regions and even war.<br />
  11. 11. The World and Trade (cont.)<br />Trade was of most importance during the early times of the world.<br />Trade increased between Europe, China, Turkey and Africa. Trading was accepted in all cultures as long as everything was settled and paid for.<br />It was a good way to interact with other civilizations gaining different knowledge on other cultures and making peace. It was a healthy exercise that everyone participated in and where everyone benefitted.<br />Traded items included:<br />Coffee<br />Tea<br />Cocoa<br />Sugar<br />Tobacco <br />Maize<br />Potato<br />Drugs<br />