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  • Social structure The patterns in our social behavior On an individual level, divorce & unemployment are experienced as personal troubles. However, in the U.S., divorce & unemployment have touched millions of lives and are, thus, public issues. When we make the perceptual shift from personal troubles to public issues, we are exercising our sociological imagination and making the social structure apparent.
  • Structuration - two-way process by which we shape our social world through our individual actions and by which we are shaped by society. - We are constantly engaged in the process of structuration.
  • Merton’s Micro and Macro Approaches to the Study of Society Macrosociology: large-scale phenomena (e.g., entire civilizations, groups, institutions, social patterns) Microsociology : Stresses the study of individual characteristics, social interactions, use of symbols (e.g., language).
  • Sociology was born in an attempt to explain the social changes resulting from the Industrial Revolution. Sociological perspective will help us to understand this world and the future it is likely to hold for us. Developing a sociological perspective requires looking beyond surface explanations for social phenomena; it requires the use of imagination. The sociological imagination refers to our ability to break free from our particular circumstances and see our social world in a new light. Developing a global perspective has great importance for sociology. It opens our eyes to the fact that our interdependence with other societies means that our actions have consequences for others and that the world’s problems affect us.
  • Microsociology - the study of everyday behavior in situations of face-to-face interaction. Macrosociology - the analysis of large-scale social systems. The two are closely connected.
  • Emile Durkheim - social change is based upon the development of division of labor. Durkheim emphasized that sociology must study social facts, aspects of social life that shape our actions as individuals. For a study to have a continuing existence over time, its specialized institutions must work in harmony with one another and function as an integrated whole (organic solidarity).
  • “ All human history thus far is the history of class struggles.” The main sources of social change come primarily from economic influences. Capitalism, he argued, divided societies into conflicting classes where the ruling class exploited the working class and the working class struggled to overcome that exploitation. Marx believed that we must study the divisions within a society that derive from these economic inequalities if we want to understand the forces shaping that society. He believed that capitalism would be replaced by an economic system in which society would have no classes.
  • His approach gave significance back to Durkheim's emphasis on social values and ideas. He sought to show how values and ideas, such as those of religion and science, can shape a society. He argued that the main dynamic of modern development is the rationalization of social and economic life. Rationalization means the organization of social, economic, and cultural life according to principles of efficiency, on the basis of technical knowledge. Lastly, Weber made major contributions to the sociology of religion.
  • The unbroken lines indicate direct influence, the dotted line an indirect connection. Mead is not indebted to Weber, but Weber’s views—stressing the meaningful, purposive nature of human action—have affinities with the themes of symbolic interactionism.
  • But it cannot be modeled directly upon the natural sciences, because studying human behavior is different from studying the world of nature.
  • Whatissociology

    1. 1. Chapter 1: What is Sociology?
    2. 2. What is Sociology? <ul><li>Developing A Sociological Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Sociological Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Is Sociology A Science </li></ul><ul><li>How Can Sociology Help Us in Our Lives </li></ul>
    3. 3. What Is Sociology? <ul><li>Sociology </li></ul><ul><li>-The systematic study of human societies, with special emphasis on social groups in modern industrialized systems. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Patterns of social behavior </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., divorce, substance abuse, aging, immigration, unemployment, underemployment, overwork, lower pay etc. However, they are public issues at the societal level. </li></ul><ul><li>Social structure is an active & constantly changing social force. </li></ul><ul><li>It varies across space & time. </li></ul>Chapter 1 What Is Sociology- Social Structure
    5. 5. Social World Human behavior & thinking Structuration
    6. 6. Chapter 1 What Is Sociology <ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social organizations & institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human behavior & thinking </li></ul>Slide  
    7. 7. Scope of Sociology The scope of sociology: studying all human relationships, groups, institutions, and societies. E.g., romantic love & marriage, gay family & marriage….(continued)
    8. 8. Scope of sociology? <ul><li>Health & illness, racial & ethnic conflicts, poverty, education, immigration, sexuality, gender, class, and crime & punishment, environment & economic development all come under the scope of sociology. </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Development of Sociological Thinking Slide <ul><li>Merton’s Micro and Macro Approaches to the Study of Society </li></ul><ul><li>Macro-sociology: large-scale phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>Micro-sociology: individual characteristics & social interactions </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Macrosociology Micro-sociology </li></ul> 
    11. 11. Sociological Imagination <ul><li>C. Wright Mills (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>-“ think ourselves away ” from the familiar routines of our daily lives </li></ul><ul><li>-look at them anew </li></ul><ul><li>-from another’s perspective </li></ul>Slide
    12. 12. Developing Sociological Perspective <ul><li>Social reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>-the way societies keep going over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Social transformation </li></ul><ul><li>-processes of changes derived from conscious intentions to change </li></ul><ul><li>-processes of unintended outcomes via social reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology studies the resulting balance between these two processes. </li></ul>Slide
    13. 13. Level of Analysis: Macro-Sociology & Micro-Sociology <ul><li>Microsociology - the study of everyday behavior in situations of face-to-face interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Macrosociology - the analysis of large-scale social systems. </li></ul><ul><li>The two are closely connected. </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Development of Sociological Thinking <ul><li>Sociology encompasses a diversity of theoretical approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Theories - constructing abstract interpretations that can be used to explain a wide variety of empirical situations. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Early Sociologists <ul><li>Auguste Comte </li></ul><ul><li>He invented the word “sociology.” </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing sociology as a means to predict & control human behavior, which in turn contributes to human welfare. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Early Sociologists <ul><li>Emile Durkheim </li></ul><ul><li>Social changes & division of labor </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology must study social facts </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony among specialized institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Society is an integrated whole (organic solidarity). </li></ul>
    17. 17. Durkheim <ul><li>Suicide- as a social problem </li></ul><ul><li>Egoistic- unattached to society </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic- “overly” attached to societies goals </li></ul><ul><li>Anomie- the absence of moral regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Rock stars/ dot.com </li></ul>
    18. 18. Early Sociologists <ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>“ All human history thus far is the history of class struggles.” </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizing economic inequality & its influences on social changes </li></ul><ul><li>The ruling class exploited the working class and the working class struggled to overcome that exploitation. </li></ul><ul><li>A classless system. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Early Sociologists <ul><li>Max Weber </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizing Durkheim's notions of social values and ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Values and ideas, such as those of religion and science, can shape a society. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization of social and economic life </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucracy-efficiency and red tape </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology of religion </li></ul>
    20. 20. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Symbolic Interactionism </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul><ul><li>The exchange of symbols between individuals in social interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale interactions of individuals, not society as a whole. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Symbolic Interaction Tree
    22. 22. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing society as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Merton has been particularly influential </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest, latent functions and dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>Study of deviance </li></ul>
    23. 23. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Marxism </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Class division-Proletariat & bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Social conflict </li></ul><ul><li>The power class uses ideology to retain their dominance </li></ul>
    24. 24. Fig. 1.1
    25. 25. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Feminism </li></ul><ul><li>Linking sociological theory and political reform </li></ul><ul><li>women’s lives and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Gendered patterns and inequalities are socially constructed. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>Society is no longer governed by history or progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern society is highly pluralistic and diverse, with no &quot;grand narrative&quot; guiding its development. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Modern Theoretical Approaches <ul><li>Rational choice theory </li></ul><ul><li>Self-interest </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-benefit calculation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Game Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul>
    28. 28. Is Sociology a Science? <ul><li>Science: </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic methods of empirical investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Logical assessments of arguments </li></ul><ul><li>A body of knowledge about a particular subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Value-free, objective & observable </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical evidence & facts </li></ul>
    29. 29. How Can Sociology Help Us in Our Lives? <ul><li>Understanding social circumstances provides us a better chance of controlling them. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology provides the means of increasing our cultural sensitivities. </li></ul><ul><li>We can investigate the consequences of adopting particular policy programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociology provides self-enlightenment, offering groups & individuals an increased opportunity to alter the conditions of their own lives. </li></ul>