Lecturing Well


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Lecturing Well. Workshop presented at AMEE 2012 in Lyon, France. Aug 18, 2012. Shared under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

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  • - How we organize the curriculum, not just the learning eventPromotion and tenure“what we do” in post-secondary – without thinking about it
  • Online lectures can transcend traditional spatial and temporal limitations but may lack critical componentsWhat’s missing?Reading the audienceFeedback and interaction
  • Link to DTS, phase, program, NOSM and medical education rules and culturePhysical space: lecture hall = we group students in large groups to teach
  • Lecturing Well

    1. 1. Lecturing well:an evidence-based approach Tim Dornan, Maastricht University Rachel Ellaway, Northern Ontario School of Medicine Janet Tworek, University of Calgary
    2. 2. Overview• Introduction• Group Work Session 1• Plenary feedback (mind map)• Summary of OTME chapter• Group Work Session 2• Report: Personal change to practice
    3. 3. Lecturing is one of the most widely criticizededucational methods… and still one of the most widely used…. and still one of the less well-understood
    4. 4. Thematic Review• Oxford Textbook of Medical Education• Chapter on „Large Group Teaching‟• Thematic review: realist principles• Program theory from key texts: – McLeish, J. (1968). The Lecture Method. – Bligh, D.A. (1971). Whats the Use of Lectures?
    5. 5. Program theory• Large group teaching : – involves interacting with learners‟ cognitive states – involves a sequence of distinct activities – involves participating in the discourse of a particular domain – is both an educational method and a systematic approach to program delivery – is constructed by the affordances of available technologies – is constructed by the affordances of the educational ecologies in which it takes place – involves a broad range of activities
    6. 6. Methods• Search ERIC, EMBASE, EBSCOHost, and PsychInfo databases for “large group teaching”, “lecture”, and “large group learning” - 1193 papers published between 2002 and 2011• included in the evidence synthesis if: – 15+ participants with faculty member leading session – empirical research in health professions education – context and intervention were sufficiently well described – findings judged 3 or higher on the BEME 1-5 scale for “strength”
    7. 7. Synthesis• evidence synthesis followed realist principles• seven themes used as a program theory of how large group teaching works, for whom, and under what conditions.• coding these papers expanded program theory into 17 free-text coding fields• coders identified trustworthy (using the BEME strength scale) causal links between one or more conditions or processes, and outcomes• Minor changes to program theory
    8. 8. Seven ThemesLarge Group Teaching:• involves a sequence of distinct activities• involves interacting with learners‟ cognitive states• involves participating in the discourse of a particular domain• is both an educational method and a systematic approach to program delivery• is constructed by the affordances of available technologies• is constructed by the affordances of the educational ecologies in which it takes place• can take many more forms than traditional and didactic lectures
    9. 9. Large Group Teachinginvolves a sequence ofdistinct activities.
    10. 10. Teacher builds presentation Teacher gives presentation Learner attends presentation Learner applies in practice
    11. 11. PreparationDesign skills(For lecturers): mastering the subject matter;defining clear objectives and scope; using novelelements and case-based examples; rehearsing (Kessler et al, 2011)
    12. 12. PresentationPerformance skillsAttention spans typically 8-15 minutes – Break presentation into sections – Provide activities, stories, changes in pace – Asking learners to answer questions, find information, or read material before the event(Cain et al 2009; Canfield 2002; Gulpinar & Yegen 2005; Johnson 2005; Van Dijken et al. 2008)
    13. 13. Follow upEvaluate and improveLecturers: Review evaluations & iterate (Bligh, 1971)Students: consolidate notes, complete assessment,participate in post-lecture synthesis activities (Rong etal, 2011)
    14. 14. Large group teachinginvolves interacting withlearners’ cognitive states
    15. 15. (Brown and Manogue, 2001; Canfield, 2002; Gülpinar and Yegen, 2005; Hartley and Cameron, 1967; Johnson and Mighten, 2005; ; Melamed et al. Cognitive 2006; McKeachie, 2006; principles Richardson, 2011; van Dijk et al, 2001) Visual Imagery; (Cosgrove et al, 2006; MacNeil, Concept Maps 2007) (Kessler, Dharmapuri and Be Engaging Marcolini, 2011; Copeland, Longworth, Hewson and Stoller, 2010) Knowledge Transmission (Powell, 1970)Ellaway, R, Tworek, J and Dornan, T (2013). Large Group Teaching. In The Oxford Textbook of Medical Education, Walsh, K (Ed). OxfordUniversity Press: in press.
    16. 16. Lecturing allows learners toparticipate in disciplinarydiscourses
    17. 17. What is said may be less important than how it is said or who says it
    18. 18. Large group teaching isboth an educational methodand a systematic approachto program delivery
    19. 19. Lecturer 1 event : many students Limited points of preparation Minimal evaluationsStudents 1 event : much info Limited preparation Minimal evaluations
    20. 20. Large group teaching isconstructed by theaffordances of availabletechnologies
    21. 21. (Tulsky et al, 2011; Ventura and Onsman, 2009; Williams et al,2011)
    22. 22. Large group teaching isconstructed by the affordancesof the educational ecologies inwhich it takes place
    23. 23. Ecology instructional ergonomics learning ergonomics ergonomics of educational equipment educational efficiency ergonomics of educational facilities ergonomics of educational(Kao, 1976) environment
    24. 24. Large Group Teaching cantake many more forms thantraditional and didacticlectures
    25. 25. MOOCsAnalytics? (de Waard et al. 2011; Kop, Fournier, & Mak 2011)