Issues IdentifiedMr. Lim (BengKwee’s teacher) conducts a lot of frontal teaching in his lesson delivery. (May be perceived as old-fashioned and boring by his students)BengKwee has trouble recalling the facts and content concepts taught in Science lessons.BengKwee’s perception of learning: Knowledge has to be memorised, not constructedDesmond also has difficulty maintaining attention in class. Desmond finds it challenging to comprehend some Mathematical concepts and struggles to apply them to solve the given problems.
Physical Environment – Focus on Seating arrangementVarious aspects of the physical environment in a classroom (notice board, colour of classroom walls, temperature, humidity, etc.), But focus on seating arrangement as it directly affects the students’ learning (positioned to see the teacher/ board clearer, or interact with their friends during discussion).Importance of Seating Arrangement: the main cause of off-task behaviouraffects the learning process, student behaviour and student engagementhas the potential to help prevent problem behaviours that decrease student attention and diminish available instructional time (Warnnarka and Ruhl, 2008).Setting up of classroom- Four Basic PrinciplesEvertson, Emmer, & Worsham, 2003Decrease obstruction in high traffic parts of the classroom.The teacher needs to see all students.Commonly used educational materials should be accessed easily.Make sure that every student can see “everything” from where he or she is seated.Additionally, it depends on the type of lessons taught and the type of furniture in the class (Marland, 1975).
Variations of seating arrangementsHorseshoeTraditional Row Stack FormationCluster - Specifically focus on cluster seating arrangementConsists of 4-5 desks together facing each other, not arranged in a linear position.They are scattered about the classroom and there is ample space between clusters to facilitate teacher movement between the groups(Zerin, 2009).
PROS OF CLUSTER ARRANGEMENTIdeal for socially facilitated learning (Patton, Snell, Knight & Florman 2001).Promotes “innovation.”(Raviv, Raviv & Reisel, 1990).Students like each other more and communicate better when facing each other (O’Hare, 1998; Bovard, 1951).Promotes collaborative learningProvides easy access to resourcesFacilitates movement Considerations to take into account in the forming of groups: Group DevelopmentGroup StructureGroup SizeGroup RolesGroup Norms
Furthermore, there have been research that question the effectiveness of the cluster seating arrangement.It counter argues that itIncreased proximity heightens likelihood of off-task conversations (Koneya, 1976, Ridling, 1994, Weinstein, 1979).Students prefer orderliness and clear views of the teacher (Raviv, Raviv & Reisel, 1990).Learning style is 60% biological (Dunn, 1990).
* Academic Achievement (involves conceptual learning, problem solving)
Teacher as a role-model Students will take on teacher’s beliefs on class identity for example. Establish values of trusting, trustworthy behavior. Foster cooperativeness, promote expression of affection & support.Structure time for personal sharing and relationship maintenanceDesign more learning activities in the ZPDProvide instructional scaffolding to assist learning and developmentZPD via collaborative learningcollaboration should be between the student and a highly advanced other. Instructors should also have students work in small groups to perform difficult tasks. They can work with students to develop a plan for dealing with a new task, and they may also; divide a complex task into several smaller, simpler tasks. The instructor should also provide structure or guidelines about how the task should be accomplished.
Definition ofMotivation Motivation is the force that energises and directs a behaviour towards a goal (Baron, 1992; Schunk, 1990; Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008).The person will engage in, or be attracted toward, activities that are perceived as having the potential to meet this need or desire.Definition of Intrinsic Motivation - Three components (Harter,1981) ChallengeCuriosity -leads an individual to seek and master challenging tasksIndependent masteryIt was maintained that students who were intrinsically motivated were more likely to choose new and difficult tasks, like to learn new things and exercise great independence on learning.Definition of Extrinsic Motivation - The motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996).Individual is usually very goal oriented and goal directed.Importance of Motivation in LearningIt is believed that motivation provides the primary impetus to initiate learning and later the driving force to sustain the learning (Guilloteaux & Dörnyei, 2008; Wang, 2008).motivation is among the most powerful determinants of students’ success or failure in school (Ryan & Connell, 1989; Sternberg & Wagner, 1994).Jonassen & Dwyer (1997) cited studies showing:motivation accounted for 16% to 38% of the variations in overall student achievement. Consistently, in mathematics education, motivation has also been regarded as one of the most important
Other advantagesEnhanced deep or conceptual learning (Ames and Archer 1988; Grolnick and Ryan 1987; Vansteenkiste et al. 2004) Creativity (Eisenberger and Shanock 2003; Koestner et al. 1984) Enhanced cognitive ﬂexibility and engagement (McGraw and McCullers 1979; Walker et al. 2006) Enhanced subjective/psychological well-being (Burton et al. 2006; Ryan and Deci 2000a; Sheldon et al. 2004) Less extrinsic motivation (Gottfried et al. 2005).
Specifically, children’s parent-oriented motivation was examined as a mechanism through which parents’ involvement facilitates children’s achievement during the early adolescent years.
The model was tested in the United States and China to identify its validity in cultures in which the nature of parents’ involvement in children’s learning differs (Chao, 1994, 1996; Cheung & Pomerantz, 2011).Parent-oriented motivation among children facilitates their engagement and ultimately achievement. Studying children in the United States and China as they entered adolescence, Pomerantz and colleagues (2012) found that:the more motivated children were in school for parent-oriented reasons as they began middle school in 7th grade and the more they sustained such motivation over the 7th and 8th grades, the more engaged they were in school at the end of 8th grade, taking into account their earlier engagement; children’s parent-oriented motivation appeared to enhance their grades as well. Notably, these effects were evident over and above children’s perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents. Children’s feelings of obligation toward the family, which may reflect a sense of responsibility similar to that of parent-oriented motivation (Pomerantz et al., 2012) also have been linked to enhanced engagement, albeit not grades, among children during adolescence (e.g., Fuligni, Tseng, & Lam, 1999; Fuligni & Zhang, 2004; Pomerantz et al., 2012).
What canMr Lim do?In the scenario, BengKwee mentioned that he can’t answer his Science teacher, Mr Lim’s questions most of the time. Therefore, Mr Lim may help his students set appropriate learning goals toward which they can make genuine progress (eg, students are able to repeat something that Mr Lim has taught, and then further answer the questions). Research indicates that getting students to set goals and make a commitment to try to reach those goals increases their performance (Bandura & Schunk, 1981; Tollefson et al., 1984).BengKwee mentioned that he falls asleep during science lessons. Mr Lim may use extrinsic rewards so they add to the students’ sense of control and self-determination. That is, allow the student to know the “payoff” for particular choices, prior to engaging in thatchoice. According to General Interest Theory (Eisenberger et al., 1999), rewards supplied for meeting a performance standard communicate a sense of achievement, satisfying the individual’s needfor competence and inducing a favorable attitude toward the task.
It is also important for Mr Lim to help his students to develop their intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the most self-determined form of motivation. The self-determination theory (SDT) has been particularly useful in students’ learning strategies, performance, and persistence (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
According to the SDT and as seen from the figure, individuals can progress from lower levels of motivation to higher levels of motivation through a process called internalisation. Internalisation reflects the way in which individuals adapt to and accept values and behaviours that are not intrinsically appealing at first. When Mr Lim does his part in motivating his students, his students will eventually become intrinsically motivated to do well in their studies.
What can Mr Lim do?Mr Lim may also try to get the parents of his students more involved in helping their children’s learning. As mentioned earlier on, it was postulated that when parents are involved in children’s learning, children become motivated in school for parent-oriented reasons (e.g., to show parents they are responsible and gain parents’ approval); such motivation heightens children’s engagement, thereby enhancing their achievement.
Additional DefinitionLearning style: the characteristic cognitive, affective, social, and physiological behaviors that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment (MacKeracher, 2004).Learning StylesPsychologicalPhysiological/ AffectiveCognitiveTeaching and Learning StylesAssociated traits not necessarily instinctualGradual change over timeReflect other characteristics of the personLearning Styles may have an influence on:(Conti & Welborn, 1986)the settings in which people wish to learnthe kinds of things they wish to learnhow they will approach learning situations QN: What are the learning styles of the three boys? How will their learning style influence the way they learn?
Huxland and Land (2000) suggest that with the knowledge of students learning styles, instructors can develop strategies that can engage students in more active learning.
Learning performance is enhanced (Kolb,1984) Increase in student achievement and satisfaction. (Lindsay,1999) Suggested that most instructors use a teaching style that is comfortable to them. This is often the way they themselves learn best. Ebeling (2000) Students preferred assignments that matched their particular learning styles. (Rinaldi & Gurung, 2008)Hayes and Allinson (1996) analysed 19 studies, which examined matching learning style to learning method and found support in 12 for improved learning performance.Gilakjani & Ahmadi (2011) examined 9 studies and found that students prefer kiaesthetic learning styles above others, whereas the teaching methods mostly suit auditory learners.Gilakjani & Ahmadi (2011) believes that accommodating teaching to learning styles improves students' overall learning resultsincreases both motivation and efficiencyenables a positive attitude towards the language being learned.
It is "…unreasonable to assume that one instructional technique (e.g., direct explanation and scaffolded instruction) can be used with equal effectiveness for all kinds of tasks, all kinds of texts, and for all kinds of students." (Paris & Winograd, 1990)
No difference between college students who received learning styles training and those in a control group, when effects of matching instructor and student learning style to enhance learning were assessed. (Jensen, 1987) Keri (2002) found no statistical differences in the satisfaction of students whose learning styles were congruent to their instructors' teaching styles. Similarly, Garton, Spain, Lamberson, and Spiers (1999) also found no practical relationship between students' learning styles and teaching style.
Gilakjani & Ahmadi (2011) posits that being aware of our students’ learning styles, psychological qualities and motivational differences will help us regulate our lessons appropriately and according to the conditions (McCarthy, 1982; Felder, Silverman, 1988; Coffield et al., 2004). Brown (2003) further suggest that the purpose of using learning styles information is to expose learners to a variety of learning activities.It may or may not match with their preferred learning style, but that will help them develop adeptness necessary to handle a range of different learning requirements.
Rinaldi & Gurung(2008) posits that revising teaching styles may not be necessary. Instead, designing curriculum that incorporates active instructional activities during the semester can increase educational outcomes and satisfaction for all students.
Information Processing ModelInfluence of selective perception on memory, and subsequently learningExcerpt from Scenario: [No such luck in our class,’ said BengKwee. ‘We had to listen to boring lessons. Occasionally Mr Lim would ask us some questions at the end of his lesson to help us recall, but I can’t answer his questions most of the time – just can’t remember what he said in the first place.]Link:In BengKwee’s case, because he perceives lesson to be boring, he does not try to ‘store’ the information given, and hence, no ‘retrieval’ of information could take place. 2. Gagne’s Phases of LearningBerlyne (cf., Benjafield, 1992) observed that we attend to information if it possess the collative (or comparative) variables of uncertainty, surprisingness, and complexity) Gagne suggests that pre-instructional and instructional practices enhance the likelihood of transfer of info back from LTM into the working STM where it can be used. Excerpt from Scenario:[BengKwee started complaining. ‘Our teacher, Mr. Lim, just drones on and on and I find it so hard to concentrate.]Link:BengKwee perceives that the information Mr Lim is providing does not possess any variables of uncertainty, surprisingness, and complexity. Hence, Mr Lim is unable to gain BengKwee’s attention in his instructional process.Excerpt from Scenario: [‘…Occasionally Mr Lim would ask us some questions at the end of his lesson to help us recall…’ – BengKwee]Link:Mr Lim did employ instructional strategies like practice and reinforcement to aid the students in transferring the information from STM to LTM.3. Dual Coding Theory(Igo, Kiewra & Bruning, 2004) suggests that we remember better when two processes are engaged: visual learning and verbal learning Effective as when information is rehearsed and elaborated, access to information in the future is easierExcerpt from Scenario: [‘…Ms Chong teaches in a different way… When we have difficulty understanding a topic, she gives us lots of examples to illustrate her point. We also have lots of hands-on activities, discussions and role play in her class. It is not boring at all!’ - James]
4. Ausubel’s Meaning Reception LearningRequires Teacher to provide students with possible ways of organising information for more efficient encoding, storage and retrieval. One of the Organising Strategies is to use the Advance Organisersto provide ‘mental scaffolding’ (deliberately prepared, slightly abstract passages) in advance of the main material to be learned, so that student learning of subsequent material can be facilitated. Other OS include mnemonic devices and mediatorsExcerpt from Scenario:[“…She [MdmNorrah] ‘walks’ us through the steps in problem solving, making sure that we understand the important steps in the process.” - James]Link: MdmNorrah provided mental scaffolding for the students and consistently checked for students’ understanding.
From our research findings, we realise that be it the seating environment or the teaching styles, it is not a matter of one size fits all. The teacher may not be able to address all the diverse learning styles of the learner, but she has to provide a variety. Carefully planned activities that encourage a variety of seating arrangements to suit the learning styles can be done to have an impact on positive learning. In addition to the previously mentioned, the class teacher can employ collaborative learning as a teaching tool as it encourages students to internalize the knowledge better (either by scaffolding or group discussions). A good social environment provides the teacher a platform to employ collaborative techniques. It is then crucial that the teacher makes an effort to create and maintain a good social environment.Similarly for motivation, we have to be aware and know how to motivate our students as individuals and as a whole. Not all students are motivated in the same way, intrinsically or extrinsically. As teachers, we need to find the delicate balance to address this diversity.
ISSUES IDENTIFIED Mr. Lim (Beng Kwee‟s teacher) - frontal teaching Beng Kwee has trouble recalling the facts and content concepts taught in Science lessons. Beng Kwee‟s perception of learning: Knowledge has to be memorised Desmond also finds it challenging to comprehend some Mathematical concepts and struggles to apply them to solve the given problems.
PROBLEM STATEMENT It is the responsibility of both teachers and students to contribute to the learning environment to impact students learning.
HYPOTHESES1. Teachers who create positive learning environment will have a positive impact on students learning2. Students who are more motivated will learn better3. Learners learn best when their learning styles are congruent to the teachers’ teaching styles.
HYPOTHESIS 1Teachers who create positive learningenvironment will have a positive impact onstudents learning
DEFINITION OF TERMSLearning Environment Physical SocialLearning positively Implies the gain/ acquisition of knowledge/ skills measured in a direction indicating improvement/ benefits.
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT –FOCUS ON SEATING ARRANGEMENT The main cause of off-task behaviour (Bonus & Riordan, 1998). Florman, 2003; Lackney & Jacobs, 2002; Weinstein (1977) believe that it affects Learning process Student behaviour Student engagement
VARIATIONS OF SEATINGARRANGEMENTS Horseshoe Traditional Row Stack Formation 4-5 desks together facing each other, not arranged in a linear position.
SUPPORTING RESEARCH FORCLUSTER ARRANGEMENT Ideal for socially facilitated learning (Patton, Snell, Knight & Florman 2001). Promotes “innovation.”(Raviv, Raviv & Reisel, 1990). Students like each other more and communicate better when facing each other (O‟Hare, 1998; Bovard, 1951).
LINK TO PBL SCENARIO 2 Cluster seating arrangement in all 3 classrooms. Yet, the underlying contention was the delivery of the lesson. Seating arrangement: not the most critical factor to create a positive learning environment to have a positive impact on students learning. Research questions the effectiveness of the cluster seating arrangement.
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT& LINK TO PBL SCENARIO 2 Entitavity, Class cohesiveness & Common Goals Vygotsky‟s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) Scaffolding
SUPPORTING RESEARCH Individual academic achievement has a positive relationship with high levels of group support and cooperation (Johnson & Johnson 1991; Slavin, 1995). Learning is directly influenced by social interactions. (Vygotsky, 1987, 1986) Cooperative learning in groups produces higher levels of academic achievement as compared to individualistic learning. (Cohen, 1986; Slavin, 1984, 1990; Webb, 1982) Learners‟ development is enhanced by their teacher‟s support (Rogoff, 2003; Lutz, Guthrie & Davis, 2006)
RECOMMENDATIONSCREATING APOSITIVE SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT Teacher as a role-model Establish values Structure time for personal sharing and relationship maintenance Design more learning activities in the ZPD Provide instructional scaffolding to assist learning and development
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS It is not possible to match environment to each individual‟s learning styles. Creative planning needed to maximize congruency of environment to learning styles Literature review by Dr Pashler asserts that no one has ever proved that any particular style of instruction simultaneously helps students who have one learning style while also harming students who have a different learning style. (2008)
HYPOTHESIS 2Students who are more motivated will learnbetter
MOTIVATIONThe force that energises & directs a behaviourtowards a goal (Baron, 1992; Schunk, 1990; Schunk, Pintrich &Meece, 2008). Intrinsic Motivation Three components (Harter,1981) – Challenge, Curiosity & Independent mastery Extrinsic Motivation The motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996).
ADVANTAGES OF INTRINSIC MOTIVATIONIN LEARNINGIntrinsically motivated students tend to have Higher academic achievement and intellectual performance (Gottfried et al. 2007) Higher self-esteem (Deci and Ryan 1995) Greater persistence (Vansteenkiste et al. 2004, 2006) Less academic anxiety (Gottfried 1982, 1985, 1990) Mastery-oriented coping with failure (Dweck 1975)
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONParent-oriented motivation as a mechanism? Parents‟ involvement facilitates children‟s achievement during the early adolescent years. (Chao, 1994, 1996: Cheung & Pomerantz, 200)
When Parents Are Involved InChildren’s Learning children become motivated in school for parent-oriented reasons. children‟s engagement heightened achievement enhanced Model was tested in the U.S. and China - Identify its validity in cultures
WHAT CAN MR LIM DO? LINK FROM PBL RECOMMEND- SUPPORTING SCENARIO 2 ATIONS THEORY Beng Kwee can‟t Set appropriate Bandura Goalanswer his Science learning goals Setting Theory teacher, Mr Lim‟s toward which they (1981) questions most of can make genuine the time. progress Beng Kwee falls Extrinsic rewards - General Interest asleep during add to students‟ Theory science lessons. sense of control (Eisenberger et al., and self- 1999) determination.
WHAT CAN MR LIM DO? Help students to develop their intrinsic motivation - most self-determined form of motivation. The self-determination theory (SDT) has been particularly useful in students‟ learning strategies, performance, and persistence (Deci & Ryan, 2000).The figure shown in next slide is the Schematic Illustrationof the Self-Determination Continuum.
WHAT CAN MR LIM DO? Mr Lim may also try to get the parents of his students more involved in helping their children‟s learning. Positive correlation with parents‟ involvement and children‟s performance
HYPOTHESIS 3Learners learn best when their learning stylesare congruent to the teachers‟ teaching styles/ methods
DEFINITIONSLearn BEST: implies an improvement in learning performanceTeaching style: refers to a persons pervasive instructional qualities that persist even though situational conditions may change (Conti & Welborn, 1986).Learning style: the characteristic ways in which individuals collect, organize, and transform data into useful information (Cross, 1976; Kolb, 1984).
IMPORTANCE OF KNOWING T&L STYLESPurpose of using learning styles is to find thebest ways forstudents to learn effectivelyteachers to teach efficiently
RESEARCH FINDINGS THAT SUPPORT HYPOTHESISDunn & Dunn (1978) claim that students canidentify their preferred learning styles and score higher on tests have better attitudes are more efficient if they are taught in more relatable ways.
RESEARCH FINDINGS THAT SUPPORT HYPOTHESISDunn & Dunn (1978)It is to the educator‟s advantage to teach and test students in their preferred styles.Despite a diverse variety of learning styles, teachers should try to make changes in their classroom that will be beneficial to every learning style.
CRITICS Teachers used the same teaching format regardless of their own learning style preference. (Tom and Calvert, 1984) Huxham and Land (2000) reported no difference between students grouped by learning style preference and those randomly selected for groups for a visual assessment activity at the college level.This suggests that using a preferred learning styleresults in no specific gains.
NEW VIEW:ADDRESS VARIETY OF LEARNING STYLES TOENSURE REWARDING LEARNING EXPERIENCE All instructors need to be able to address a variety of learning styles (Taylor, 1998) even if not all of each student‟s learning style may be accommodated. Courses can be designed to use a variety of teaching methods to ensure that learners benefit from a comfortable and rewarding experience. (Gooden, Preziosi & Barnes, 2009)
NEW VIEW:ACTIVE LEARNING IMPROVES OVERALL LEARNING Rinaldi & Gurung (2008) showed that designing assignments to match students learning styles does not lead to better performance but active learning positively relates to overall learning.
LINK TO PBL SCENARIO 2New View of „Addressing a variety of learning styles‟ and „active learning‟ can be supported by the Cognitive Theories. Information Processing Model Gagne‟s Phases of Learning Dual Coding Theory Ausubel‟s Meaning Reception Learning
WHAT CAN MR LIM DO? LINK FROM PBL RECOMMEND- SUPPORTING SCENARIO 2 ATIONS THEORY• Perceived boring • Pre-instructional 1. Information lessons and instructional Processing• No storage of practices Model information • Variables of 2. Gagne‟s• No retrieval of uncertainty, Phases of information can surprisingness, and Learning take place complexity.• Examples, hands- • Engage two 3. Dual Coding on activities, processes of Theory discussions and learning role play given by • Rehearse and Ms Chong elaborate
WHAT CAN MR LIM DO? LINK FROM PBL RECOMMEND- SUPPORTING SCENARIO 2 ATIONS THEORY• Mdm Norrah • Provide 4. Ausubel‟s provided mental students with Meaning scaffolding for the possible ways Reception students of organising Learning• Checked for their information understanding
ONE SIZE FITS ALL?“Every student can learn,just not on the same day, or the .” (George Evans)
SCENE 1 Narrator: Miss Wong has arrived! Miss Wong: Let‟s begin our Mathematics lesson! Miss Wong: What is 1x3? Student A: 3! (repeat Question till 3x3 and Student A answers correctly)
SCENE 2 Miss Wong (turns to Student B): What is 4x3? Student B: Whaaat? Student A: Don‟t you know the answer? (x2) (Students turn one circle while saying lines) Student B: I don‟t know! (x3) Student B: I! don‟t! know!
SCENE 3 Miss Wong: Outrageous! Bring him out to beheaded! (Student B is brought out of the scene but he struggles and protests) Student B: Yo! Yo! Why can‟t you be like this?
SCENE 4 – WHERE IS THE LOVE?-ADAPTED FROM „WHERE IS THE LOVE‟ BY BLACK EYED PEAS (2003)Don‟t lecture this way, teacherExpecting us to absorb all that dataSo could you please help us with this favorLearning this way won‟t make us recall betterBombarding us, yeah it doesnt do anythingBut here you are still droningIn Science and CME,During English, Math and in PE
SCENE 4 – WHERE IS THE LOVE?-ADAPTED FROM „WHERE IS THE LOVE‟ BY BLACK EYED PEAS (2003) But if you have love for your own kids Then you should prioritise their learning needs And to discriminate only generates hate And when you hate then youre bound to get irate Instrinsically is how you should motivate Reflect and change before its too late Using scaffolded learning for us is the key previously coined by Lev Vygostky Teach us from the heart, not just the book
SCENE 4 – WHERE IS THE LOVE?-ADAPTED FROM „WHERE IS THE LOVE‟ BY BLACK EYED PEAS (2003) Teaching boring, students dying Children hurt, you hear them crying How to remember what you teach, And would you burn up all you preach Teacher, teacher, teacher help us Send some guidance from above cause your methods got me questioning Where is the love (The love) Where is the love (The love) Where is the love, the love, the love...
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