It is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (often called TCP/IP, although not all applications use TCP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging , Internet forums, and social networking. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email.
InternetVinton Gray "Vint" Cerf – Father of the InternetA global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions.Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet isdecentralized by design.The Internet is a communication system that has brought a wealth ofinformation to our fingertips and organized it for our use.The Internet is a structured, organized system.
The most notable internet is called the Internet, a collaboration of morethan hundreds of thousands of interconnected networks.In the mid-1960s, mainframe computers in research organizations werestand alone devices. Computers from different manufacturers were unableto communicate w/ one another. The Advanced Research Projects Agency(ARPA) was interested in finding a way to connect computers so that theresearchers they funded could share their findings.In 1967, at an Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)meeting, ARPA presented its ideas for ARPANET, a small network ofconnected computers.In 1972, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn were part of the core ARPANETgroup, collaborated on what they called the Internetting Project. Cerf andKahn’s landmark 1973 paper outlined the protocols to achieved end-to-enddelivery packets.
A Brief HistoryThis paper on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) included conceptssuch as encapsulation, the datagram, and the functions of a gateway.Authorities made a decision to split TCP into two protocols:Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internetworking Protocol(IP), IP would handle datagram routing while TCP would be responsiblefor higher-level functions such as segmentations, reassembly, and errordetection. The internetworking protocol became known as TCP/ IP.
Uses Of the InternetThe Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours andlocation, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. TheInternet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, includingthrough mobile Internet devices.For distance education, help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time, or just looking up more detail on aninteresting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educationalinformation at any level from anywhere. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular areimportant enablers of both formal and informal education.The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers andinformation stores easily, wherever they may be. This is encouraging new ways ofworking from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries.
Uses Of the Internet in TermsSearch EnginesIt is designed to search for information on the internet. Search enginepresents the search results in the form of a search results list. The searchresults can be web pages, images, videos, and other type of files.To gather and present the searched information, each search engines hastheir own algorithm, or combination of algorithmic and human input.Google.com is currently the most popular and frequently used searchengine.Web Browsers / Internet BrowsersA Web Browser is a type of software that retrieves and presentsinformation resources on the internet. The information resource can betext, image, sound, video, or other type of content.In a simple way, we can describe a web browser as a type of software thatwe use to ‘surf’ the internet.
These are some examples of web browsers, each with their ownplus and minuses:- Microsoft Internet Explorer- Firefox- Opera- Safari- Google ChromeTypes of Internet ConnectionsThere are several types of internet connections.- Analog/Dial-Up- ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)- DSL- Cable- Wireless Internet Connections/Wireless Broadband- Satellite (Internet over Satellite/IoS)
Advantages of the Internet;1. Faster CommunicationThe foremost target of Internet has always been speedy communicationand it has excelled way beyond the expectations. Newer innovations are onlygoing to make it faster and more reliable..2. Information Resources Information is probably the biggest advantage that Internet offers. Internet is a virtual treasure trove of information. Any kind of information on any topic under the sun is available on the Internet.
Advantages of the Internet;3. Entertainment Entertainment is another popular reason why many people prefer to surf the Internet. Downloading games or just surfing the celebrity websites are some of the uses people have discovered.4. Social Networking Social networking has become so popular amongst youth that it might one day replace physical networking. Apart from finding long-lost friends, you can also look for job, business opportunities on forums, communities etc.
Advantages of the Internet;5. Online ServicesThe Internet has made life very convenient. With numerous onlineservices you can now perform all your transactions online. You can booktickets for a movie, transfer funds, pay utility bills, taxes etc., right fromyour home.6. e-commerceThe concept of e-commerce is used for any type of commercialmaneuvering or business deals that involves the transfer of informationacross the globe via the Internet. It has become a phenomenon associatedwith any kind of shopping, business deal etc.
Disadvantages of the Internet;1. Theft of Personal Information If you use the Internet for online banking, social networking or other services, you may risk a theft to your personal information such as name, address, credit card number etc.2. Spamming Spamming refers to sending unwanted e-mails in bulk, which provide no purpose and needlessly obstruct the entire system. Such illegal activities can be very frustrating for you as it makes your Internet slower and less reliable.3. Virus Threat Internet users are often plagued by virus attacks on their systems. Virus programs are inconspicuous and may get activated if you click a seemingly harmless link. Computers connected to the Internet are very prone to targeted virus attacks and may end up crashing.
Disadvantages of the Internet;4. Pornography Pornography is perhaps the biggest disadvantage of the Internet. Internet allows you to access and download millions of pornographic photos, videos and other X-rated stuff. Such unrestricted access to porn can be detrimental for children and teenagers.5. Social Disconnect Thanks to the Internet, people now only meet on social networks. More and more people are getting engulfed in virtual world and drifting apart from their friends and family. Even children prefer to play online games rather than going out and mingling with other kids. This may hamper a healthy social development in children.
The Internet TodayThe Internet today is not a simple hierarchical structure. It is made up ofmany wide and local-area networks joined by connecting devices andswitching stations. Today most end-users who want Internet connectionsuse the services of Internet Service Providers (ISPs).An Internet service provider (ISP) is an organization that providesaccess to the Internet.There are international Service Providers:• National service providers,• Regional service providers,• Local service providers.
Hierarchical organization of the Internet ISP ISP ISP ISP Regional Regional ISP ISP National ISP a. Structure of national ISP National ISP National National ISP ISP NAP National National ISP ISP b. Interconnection of national ISP
The Internet TodayInternational Internet Service ProvidersAt the top of the hierarchy are the international service providers thatconnect nations together.1. National internet Service Providers The national Internet service providers are backbone networks created and maintained by specialized companies. Example of these backbone networks are Sprintlink, PSINet, UUNet technology, AGIS and internet MCI. To provide connectivity between the end users, these backbone networks are connected by complex switching stations called network access points (NAPs).2. Regional Internet Service Providers Regional ISPs are smaller ISPs that are connected to one or more national ISPs. They are at the third level of the hierarchy with a small data rate.
The Internet Today3 . Local Internet Service providers it provide direct service to the end users. The local ISPs can be connected to regional IPSs or directly to national ISPs. Each of local ISPs can be connected to a regional or national service providers.