Chirag Sharma X-B 5Topic=Introduction To INTERNET?
Introduction To InternetThe Term INTERNET has changed the way millions of people work and do business across the world. It has brought about a revolutionary transformation in the field of science and information technology. Today wherever we go, we frequently interact with this term and see the different types of advantages , such as mailing letter around the world, talking or chatting with different people, marketing the goods and making different types of business transaction on the Internet.The term INTERNET is a blend of two words, INTERNATIONAL and NETWORK, with ‘Inter’ from International and ‘Net’ from Network. It means, Internet is a web of network of many computer around the world. Internet is nothing but a world wide network where many small networks have joined together. That is why Internet is also called Networks of network.
Origin To INTERNETIn late1960s,researchers started experimenting with linking computer to computer and people under the auspices of the Advanced Research Project Agency(ARPA) an agency funded by the U.S. Department of Defence. The outcome of their research effort gave them and the world what is now on the lips of everybody as ‘INTERNET’. Internet connects computers to computers through Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). Later-mail its was developed as a result of its success for wider use and saving of time. Now, Internet is the largest network world wide and more than 8 million computers are already connected to this network.
What is Internet?INTERNET is an inter-connection between several computers of different types belonging to various networks all over the globe. It has been right called a Network of network.The term ‘Network’ is defined as the interconnection of various dumb terminals having one server(main) system.Network is the attachment of various network together.A terminal is a computer of network which does not contain any hard disk.
Salient Feature of Internet are:Gust as one cannot think of Internet without thinking of the computer, it is the Internet , in turn, which has increased manifold the popularity of the computer.. Application Of Interneta)One can seek jobs in India or abroad best suitable to one’s qualification in a short time, without going anywhere.b)Nowadays, it has become easier to find one’s life partner by using
User Of InternetUndoubtedly, everybody who can watch the television or who can type on the typewriter and read and understand simple English can be an Internetuser. And one who can use the telephone, can also use Internet.In fact, Internet is very easy to use because one need not learn commands or learn any specific computer language. If one can understand simple English word and react to them, one can use Internet.Given below is a table by which we can better understand how Internet is helpful to various types of professional or persons.
Internet User Use Student= can gather information or reading material on different subject according to their needs. Even rare information or pictures which cannot be found in any books, can be found Internet. Children= Children love chat with their friends and are interested in making new friends, specially in other countries. They also like to play on-line games. They can do both these on Internet. Housewives= Can chat with hubbies when they are on tour and can slash down the STD, ISO bills. They can also attend Cookery, Decoration, Art & Craft and other on-line courses, and consult the experts. Businessmen= Have multifarious advantages of using Internet. They can sell their products and services on-line and without opening showroom at different cities and countries. They can even give demo on computer and make new customer and client.
• Doctors= Doctors can consult their serious on-line for analysing or studying cases of typical patient and can get guidance and expert opinion to give treatment to their patient. They can also work as Medical Consulants offering on-line services.• Scientists= Are very much dependent on the computer with Internet. They collect data from different agencies world- wide, and can use the same to find scientific solution of problems. For examples, they can get current pictures taken through the satellite and use for analysis/ experiments.• Office Secretaries= Are using Internet to send and receive e- mails and have instant communicatation with associates and client. The document sent or received by Internet is just like fax, so it is used as an evidence also.
Advantages of InternetThe following are main advantages of Internet:(i). Internet acts as a network where different organization can use it to link their offices and employees to access for a variety of information.(ii). Internet acts as a medium which serves as a communication channel for the business-oriented people dealing with product marketing to corporate communications.(iii). Internet acts as a vast virtual market place, where one can buy and sell any goods from the market. We can ever advertise our products.
How to make Internet Operational?To start Internet and make it fully operational on PC, the following points must be kept in mind:(1) Preferably, we should have a Pentium Processor with 64 Mb or more memory (RAM).(2) The operating system like WINDOWS 98/2000/XP with CD-ROM must be installed in our PC.(3) To safeguard against the virus problem on the Internet, we must load an Anti Virus Software on our system.(4) A modem must be connected to our system which should have a speed of33.6kbps (Kilo bytes per second ).(5) A Telephone connection must be there to connect the Internet.
Internet Protocol (IP) Addressing SystemThe Internet has more than million computers attached to it, from which arises the need of a proper addressing system for communicating. This system of addressing is called the Internet Protocol (IP) addressing system. Each computer on the network is called a host, and has a name and a number that identifies it The I P addressing system uses two types of addressing system:(1). Letter Addressing system; and(2). Number addressing system.
Accessing InternetA proper access of the Internet depends on two things:1. The user’s interface connecting; and2. The installed browser. Different networks provide different kinds of services and connections.The type of connection chosen by a user will depend on the purpose for which the user intends to use the Internet.1.Dedicated Access2. Dial-up Access
ModemModem is a short name for ‘Modulation Demodulation’. It is a connecting device which helps in connecting digital signals and vice-versa. We know that, to connect to the Internet or to communicate with any other computer on-line, we need a modem, a telephone line and a PC. Here PC understands digital signals whereas telephone lines are designed to carry analog signals. So, modem was invented to convert digital signals into analog from that allows them to travel over telephone lines. At the same time, a modem at the other end of the line can understand and convert the analog signals back to digital from that a computer can understand.
External ModemThe External Modem looks like a plastic box and it is connected to the system unit like printer and other peripherals. This can be removed from one computer and connected to the other computer easily. Internal ModemInternet Modem is just like a circuit-board which is fixed in the system unit. It cannot be removed from one computer to be used in the other computer so easily. However, Internet Modem is cheaper than External Modem.
World Wide Web (WWW)The Internet component that is currently drawing much attention is the WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW). WWW is a series of servers that are interconnected through hypertext.The concept of WWW came in the mind of Tim Berners Lee, an engineer by profession, who had the idea of creating an electronic web of research information. In the 1980, he developed a programming language called Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) on which the web is based. Early web pages contained only text but due to rapid development in technology, the web pages now contain pictures and other multimedia elements in addition to text.WWW or W3 is a graphical Internet services which provides a network of interactive documents and the software to access them. It is composed of different components. HTML is one of those component of World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web is non-linear. There is no top, there is no bottom. Non- linear means we do not have to follow a hierarchical path to information resources.We can do the following:(1). Jump from one link (resource) to another.(2). Go directly to a resource if we know the URL, Le., its address.(3). Jump to specific parts of a documents. There are many more advantages of WWW which can be listed as follows:(1). It creates a link in a web document which is used to open documents.(2). In WWW, a web page can contain pictures, buttons and even links to sound files with text thus creating multimedia application.(3). With the help of sophisticated web document in the WWW, the users may be allowed to interact with the application through dialog boxes and forms.
Common TerminologiesSome of the most frequently used terms related to WWW are as under: Web ServersWeb Server is a place where the web pages reside. It is such a software programme that uses the TCP/IP network protocol to transmit data to and from WWW browser. World Wide Web servers are information provides. These are also used to refer to the computer that runs the server Programs.Some popular Web Servers available around us are the following:(1). Internet Information Server (liS) from Microsoft.(2). Fast Track From Netscape.(3). Intra Netware from Novell.
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML)The World Wide Web (WWW) has changed the way millions of people work in the world. The HTML or Markup Language is at the heart of the web. HTML is a language that is easy to write, easy to understand and highly portable. It is defined as the encoding scheme that is used to create and format a web document. Origin of HTMLHtml is not an invention but an improved version of stand Generalized MarkLanguage (SGML). In 1990, Tim Berners Lee at CERN designed the original HTML document type.
Communicate in Real Time• In the last few years, the Internet has been hit by a wave of real-time communication. The processes of getting information, talking to others, and collaborating with colleagues no longer require a waiting period.Chatting• At some point, you may want to remove the time delay between sending and receiving e-mail. You may want to converse directly with another person or have the ability to address a group of people.• Today the most popular chatting services and tools are IRC and ICQ.
What Is IRC and How Does It Work?• IRC (Internet Relay Chat) was developed in the late 1980s by Jarkko Oikarinen. It consists of a network of chat servers located all over the globe. Each server is connected via the network, allowing users to have real- time communications.• Using IRC, large groups of people can simultaneously participate in discussion groups, called channels.• A users message is instantly viewed by all the other guests in that channel.
• IRC poses no restrictions to the number of users. Tens of thousands of people connect to IRC everyday to discuss everything from world news to what they had for dinner last night.• If you cant find a channel for your topic of discussion, you can always start your own.• Actually, a few separate networks make up IRC. The two biggest are EFnet and Undernet. Some channels are shared by both, whereas other channels reside on only one of the networks. Because of the network connections to either EFnet or Undernet, you dont have to connect to the same server every time. Try connecting to the one that is geographically closest to you. Doing so may make your connection faster.
• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the one of the most important and popular protocols used in Internet. Any two computers from any two parts of the world can be connected to each other through FTP in order to send, get any file to/from each other.• You can use standard FTP commands in order to connect to an FTP server, then you may upload (send) or download (get) any file to/from this server (if you familiar with the command set of FTP).• If you do not know FTP commands, you may use any FTP tools (e.i.: Cute-FTP, Bulletproof- FTP) or a new generation web browser which is supporting FTP (e.i.: Internet explorer, Netscape Navigator, …) for this purpose.
• Most of the FTP servers require user accounts with passwords in order to allow their users to connect themselves.• FTP servers may allow foreign users to login (connect themselves) as anonymous user with limited rights.
• World Wide Web (WWW) is going to be the most effective and the cheapest publishing environment of today (it is competing with TV now).• Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is a language that forms the documents in order to published in the WWW environment.• Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a protocol, that is used for transferring HTML pages from WEB servers to the clients browsers.
Ames of Internet National Quake Teams (Play with other users) Bots (Play with computer characters that they have artificial intelligence)Music on Internet RealAudio, Radio station on Internet, …Video on Internet RealVideo, EmblazeVideo, Internet TV, …Video Conferencing With the help of a small, inexpensive camera, and the right software on your computer, you can conduct face-to-face business and personal meetings right over the Internet.
• For an organization or individual who has contacts spread out over a large geographic area but who needs face-to-face contact with them on a regular basis, video conferencing is very useful.