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LECTURE ASSIGNMENT 10
CHEMISTRY 1
NAME: Tupaz, Ishi Pearl C. BMLS 1-E
1. What are the medically important alcohols? Discuss briefly their uses.
Methanol
 Methanol is an important material in chemicalsynthesis.Its derivatives are
used in great quantities for building up a vast number of compounds,
among them many important synthetic dyestuffs, resins, pharmaceuticals,
and perfumes. It is also used in automotive antifreezes, in rocket fuels, and
as a general solvent. Methanol is also a high-octane, clean-burning fuel
that is a potentially important substitute for gasoline in automotive
vehicles. The methanol derived from wood is used chiefly for rendering
industrial ethyl alcohol unfit to drink.
Ethanol
 Ethanol is widely used as a solvent. It is relatively safe and can be used to
dissolvemany organiccompounds that are insoluble in water. It is used, for
example, in many perfumes and cosmetics. Ethanol (also known as ethyl
alcohol) is used in many hand sanitizers and medical wipes. It is also used
as a fuel in its own right or in mixtures with petrol (gasoline). "Gasohol" is
a petrol/ethanol mixture containing approximately 10–20% ethanol.
Because ethanol can be produced by fermentation, this is a useful method
for countries without an oil industry to reduce the amount of petrol
imports.
2-Propanol
 2-Propanol also called as isopropyl alcohol is one of the most common
members of the alcohol family of organic compounds.
Isopropyl alcohol is mixed with water for use as a rubbing-alcohol
antiseptic. It is also used in aftershave lotions, hand lotions, and other
cosmetics. In industry it is used as an inexpensive solvent for cosmetics,
drugs, shellacs, and gums, as well as for denaturing ethanol (ethyl alcohol).
Added to wet gas, it helps to prevent separation and freezing of a water
layer. 2-Propanol is easily oxidized to acetone, another important solvent.
Ethylene Glycol
 It is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2. It is mainly used for
two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and
for antifreeze formulations. It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting,
viscous liquid. Another important use is as a coolant in engines. In modern
engines, higher running temperatures mean better fuel efficiency and
reduced emissions. Water is by far the best coolant, having a low viscosity,
high specific heat capacity and high thermal conductivity, but is limited in
its use because of its relatively high freezing point, low boiling point and it
corrodes metals.
2. What are the health effects of alcohol consumption?
 Many of us drink alcohol to relax and socialize. Alcohol can be part of a
healthy lifestyle if you drink in moderation and also exercise and have a
good diet. But excessive alcohol consumption can affect your physical and
mental health. Here are some of the more common negative health
consequences of excessive alcohol consumption.
o liver disease, including cirrhosis and life-threatening liver failure
requiring a liver transplant
o a higher risk of high blood pressure, heart failure, and dementia
o a higher risk of certain cancers, including those of the digestive
tract (including colon cancer), breast, and liver
o a higher risk of injury, especially from drunk driving and falls —
homicides and suicides are also often alcohol-related
o lapses in judgement — For example, people who are drunk may
engage in risky sexual behavior or use other drugs
o a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and addiction which may, in
turn, affect one’s ability to establish and maintain social
relationships and employment
o Alcohol poisoning — many people don’t realize that if you drink
enough alcohol over a short period of time, it can be fatal
o fetal alcohol syndrome — alcohol can damage a baby’s developing
brain and cause other developmental abnormalities.
Excessive alcohol consumption can cause health problems not only for the
drinker, but also for their family, friends, coworkers, and employers.
3. Write out the chemical reactions that occur during the metabolism of ethanol. Explain
how Antabuse is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
 Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase occur
during the metabolism of ethanol. Antabuse (disulfiram) was the first
medicine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the
treatment of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Disulfiram or
Antabuse works by blocking the processing of alcohol in the body. This
causes you to have a bad reaction when you drink alcohol. When alcohol
enters the body, it is converted into acetaldehyde and then into aceticacid.
Disulfiram blocks the conversion from acetaldehyde to acetic acid,
resulting in an upsurge of acetaldehyde, which is toxic and causes the
individual to become ill. It is important to note that disulfiram does not
treat withdrawal from alcohol nor does it reduce cravings for alcohol. It is
designed as a deterrent to drinking. Disulfiramshould be taken regularly to
ensure the metabolic cycle continues, reducing the desire to drink alcohol.
4. What test is used to determine the level of alcohol content in an alcohol in toxicated
person? Describe the test and write out the chemical reaction that occur in this test.
 Blood Alcohol test is a standard measurement used to describe how drunk
a person may be. Different percentages of alcohol in the blood lead to
different levels of mental and physical changes and risks.
Chemical Reaction occur in this test
 The sulfuric acid removes the alcohol from the air into a liquid solution.
The alcohol reacts with potassium dichromate to produce: chromium
sulfate potassium sulfate acetic acid water
The silver nitrate is a catalyst, a substance that makes a reaction go faster
without participating in it. The sulfuric acid, in addition to removing the
alcohol from the air, alsomight provide the acidiccondition needed for this
reaction. During this reaction, the reddish-orange dichromate ion changes
color to the green chromium ion when it reacts with the alcohol; the
degree of the color change is directly related to the level of alcohol in the
expelled air. To determine the amount of alcohol in that air, the reacted
mixture is compared to a vialof unreacted mixture in the photocell system,
which produces an electric current that causes the needle in the meter to
move from its resting place. The operator then rotates a knob to bring the
needle back to the resting place and reads the level of alcohol from the
knob -- the more the operator must turn the knob to return it to rest, the
greater the level of alcohol.
5. Give an example of a halogenated ether commonly used as an anesthetic. Give 2 reasons
why halogenated ether are now used in place of diethyl ether as anesthetic.
 Enflurane is halogenated ether used as an anesthetic.
 Diethyl ether is very flammable, especially in the presence of enriched
oxygen mixtures. Due to this, there have been many fires and even
explosions in operating rooms during surgery. This is the most important
reason as to why diethyl ether was replaced as ageneral anesthetic, though
it is still used commonly as a solvent and reagent in organic chemistry
laboratories. Originally, non-flammable halogenated hydrocarbons like
chloroform replaced diethyl ether. In addition, diethyl ether was also
replaced, because less hazardous anesthetics were utilized.

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Lecture assignment 10 (tupaz, ishi pearl c.)

  • 1. LECTURE ASSIGNMENT 10 CHEMISTRY 1 NAME: Tupaz, Ishi Pearl C. BMLS 1-E 1. What are the medically important alcohols? Discuss briefly their uses. Methanol  Methanol is an important material in chemicalsynthesis.Its derivatives are used in great quantities for building up a vast number of compounds, among them many important synthetic dyestuffs, resins, pharmaceuticals, and perfumes. It is also used in automotive antifreezes, in rocket fuels, and as a general solvent. Methanol is also a high-octane, clean-burning fuel that is a potentially important substitute for gasoline in automotive vehicles. The methanol derived from wood is used chiefly for rendering industrial ethyl alcohol unfit to drink. Ethanol  Ethanol is widely used as a solvent. It is relatively safe and can be used to dissolvemany organiccompounds that are insoluble in water. It is used, for example, in many perfumes and cosmetics. Ethanol (also known as ethyl alcohol) is used in many hand sanitizers and medical wipes. It is also used as a fuel in its own right or in mixtures with petrol (gasoline). "Gasohol" is a petrol/ethanol mixture containing approximately 10–20% ethanol. Because ethanol can be produced by fermentation, this is a useful method for countries without an oil industry to reduce the amount of petrol imports. 2-Propanol  2-Propanol also called as isopropyl alcohol is one of the most common members of the alcohol family of organic compounds. Isopropyl alcohol is mixed with water for use as a rubbing-alcohol antiseptic. It is also used in aftershave lotions, hand lotions, and other cosmetics. In industry it is used as an inexpensive solvent for cosmetics, drugs, shellacs, and gums, as well as for denaturing ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Added to wet gas, it helps to prevent separation and freezing of a water layer. 2-Propanol is easily oxidized to acetone, another important solvent.
  • 2. Ethylene Glycol  It is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2. It is mainly used for two purposes, as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and for antifreeze formulations. It is an odorless, colorless, sweet-tasting, viscous liquid. Another important use is as a coolant in engines. In modern engines, higher running temperatures mean better fuel efficiency and reduced emissions. Water is by far the best coolant, having a low viscosity, high specific heat capacity and high thermal conductivity, but is limited in its use because of its relatively high freezing point, low boiling point and it corrodes metals. 2. What are the health effects of alcohol consumption?  Many of us drink alcohol to relax and socialize. Alcohol can be part of a healthy lifestyle if you drink in moderation and also exercise and have a good diet. But excessive alcohol consumption can affect your physical and mental health. Here are some of the more common negative health consequences of excessive alcohol consumption. o liver disease, including cirrhosis and life-threatening liver failure requiring a liver transplant o a higher risk of high blood pressure, heart failure, and dementia o a higher risk of certain cancers, including those of the digestive tract (including colon cancer), breast, and liver o a higher risk of injury, especially from drunk driving and falls — homicides and suicides are also often alcohol-related o lapses in judgement — For example, people who are drunk may engage in risky sexual behavior or use other drugs o a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and addiction which may, in turn, affect one’s ability to establish and maintain social relationships and employment o Alcohol poisoning — many people don’t realize that if you drink enough alcohol over a short period of time, it can be fatal o fetal alcohol syndrome — alcohol can damage a baby’s developing brain and cause other developmental abnormalities. Excessive alcohol consumption can cause health problems not only for the drinker, but also for their family, friends, coworkers, and employers. 3. Write out the chemical reactions that occur during the metabolism of ethanol. Explain how Antabuse is used in the treatment of alcoholism.  Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase occur during the metabolism of ethanol. Antabuse (disulfiram) was the first
  • 3. medicine approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. Disulfiram or Antabuse works by blocking the processing of alcohol in the body. This causes you to have a bad reaction when you drink alcohol. When alcohol enters the body, it is converted into acetaldehyde and then into aceticacid. Disulfiram blocks the conversion from acetaldehyde to acetic acid, resulting in an upsurge of acetaldehyde, which is toxic and causes the individual to become ill. It is important to note that disulfiram does not treat withdrawal from alcohol nor does it reduce cravings for alcohol. It is designed as a deterrent to drinking. Disulfiramshould be taken regularly to ensure the metabolic cycle continues, reducing the desire to drink alcohol. 4. What test is used to determine the level of alcohol content in an alcohol in toxicated person? Describe the test and write out the chemical reaction that occur in this test.  Blood Alcohol test is a standard measurement used to describe how drunk a person may be. Different percentages of alcohol in the blood lead to different levels of mental and physical changes and risks. Chemical Reaction occur in this test  The sulfuric acid removes the alcohol from the air into a liquid solution. The alcohol reacts with potassium dichromate to produce: chromium sulfate potassium sulfate acetic acid water The silver nitrate is a catalyst, a substance that makes a reaction go faster without participating in it. The sulfuric acid, in addition to removing the alcohol from the air, alsomight provide the acidiccondition needed for this reaction. During this reaction, the reddish-orange dichromate ion changes color to the green chromium ion when it reacts with the alcohol; the degree of the color change is directly related to the level of alcohol in the expelled air. To determine the amount of alcohol in that air, the reacted mixture is compared to a vialof unreacted mixture in the photocell system, which produces an electric current that causes the needle in the meter to move from its resting place. The operator then rotates a knob to bring the needle back to the resting place and reads the level of alcohol from the knob -- the more the operator must turn the knob to return it to rest, the greater the level of alcohol. 5. Give an example of a halogenated ether commonly used as an anesthetic. Give 2 reasons why halogenated ether are now used in place of diethyl ether as anesthetic.  Enflurane is halogenated ether used as an anesthetic.  Diethyl ether is very flammable, especially in the presence of enriched oxygen mixtures. Due to this, there have been many fires and even explosions in operating rooms during surgery. This is the most important
  • 4. reason as to why diethyl ether was replaced as ageneral anesthetic, though it is still used commonly as a solvent and reagent in organic chemistry laboratories. Originally, non-flammable halogenated hydrocarbons like chloroform replaced diethyl ether. In addition, diethyl ether was also replaced, because less hazardous anesthetics were utilized.