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Security and privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks


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Security and privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks

  2. 2. Wireless communication is playing anincreasingly important role in manyspheres of society. It has become anessential means of communication. Recentadvances in technology have motivatednew application domains for wirelessnetworks. The purpose of this article is toexamine security and privacy issues insome new and emerging types of wirelessnetworks, and attempt to identifydirections for future research.
  3. 3. In this article we consider security and privacy issues in certain emerging wireless networks: Wireless sensor networks (WSN) Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET)
  4. 4. Wireless networks are inherently more vulnerable than their wired counterparts. Notable factors contributing to security problems include the following: Channel - Wireless usually involve broadcast communication, which makes eavesdropping and jamming easier. Mobility - If a wireless device is affiliated with a person, tracking the device reveals that persons location. Thus privacy become a important concern.
  5. 5.  Resources – End host usually battery powered devices which limits computation, size of RAM and secondary storage. which open the door of denial of service attacks at battery depletion Accessibility- Some devices are generally left unattended and are places in remote locations. which increases more chances for physical attacks.
  6. 6.  The original motivation for WSN research stemmed from the vision of Smart Dust in the late 1990s It consists of large number of small cheap resource constraint sensors and a sink or base stations Easy to deploy Use in military , environmental, disaster relief and homeland security
  7. 7.  Constant presence of a sink Limited life spanTo resolve above issues, two new WSN introduced: Unattended WSN ( UWSN ) Radio frequency identification ( RFID )
  8. 8. Unattended WSNs operate without continuouspresence of (or supervision by) a sink. Instead,sensor-collected data is harvested by an itinerantsink that visits the network intermittently, with acertain upper bound on the interval betweensuccessive visits. Because sensors cannotCommunicate with the sink at will, they must accumulate data in situ and wait for the sink. Theunattended nature of the network might be promotedby some design requirements to avoid anycentral point of failure.
  9. 9.  Data Protection at individual sensor - The main challenge is to protect the data on individual sensor from the attacker. To attained this encryption is used. So that even if the attacker get control on the sensor, it cannot decrypt the data. this is attained by periodically updating secret keys through One way function ( hash functions ) Data Survival - To acheive data survival sensor plays a hide & seek game by moving all of its data around the network. This is ultimately a losing game unless encryption is used.
  10. 10.  Secrecy - The attackers aims to learns sensors secrets in order to decrypt its data later. One of the proposed solution allow sensor to recover from the compromise by simultaneously providing and obtaining help to/from peer sensors. Authentication - Data obtain by each sensor is authenticated by the sink. So that it can identify that data is modified by any attacker or not. One of the proposed technique involves sensors to co-sign the data of their neighboring nodes. So that if any one of the co-signer is not compromised, sink can verify integrity and authenticity.
  11. 11.  Sensors are based on the batteries. If battery runs out , sensor will die. Rsensors and Rsink. Rsensors are also equipped with energy harvesting means:  solar  thermal  vibrational Reduced size.
  12. 12.  Presence of Rsink is necessary. Cryptographic operations. RFID Reader Collision Since RFID systems make use of the electromagnetic spectrum They are relatively easy to jam using energy at the right frequency.
  13. 13. In this article we examine security and privacy issues insome new and emerging wireless networks. In surveyingrelevant literature, we tried to identify new security andprivacy challenges as well as inadequacies of currentapproaches. Certain challenges arise from the unattended,intermittently connected, and possibly mobile networkoperation. Consequently, we need to anticipate threatsarising from malicious exploitation of such networkfeatures and design appropriate security countermeasures.Also, since some emerging wireless networks are ad hoc innature, infrastructure-independent security and privacytechniques are particularly suitable. Finally, emergingwireless devices such as RSensors motivate thedevelopment of new cryptographic primitives andprotocols.