Security in WSN

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Security in WSN

  1. 1. Security in Wireless sensor network Disclaimer: a. Information included in this slides came from multiple sources. We have tried our best to cite the sources. Please refer to the Table of References slide (#2) to learn about the sources, when applicable. b. The slides should be used only for academic purposes (e.g., in teaching a class), and should not be used for commercial purposes. Security in Wireless sensor network 1
  2. 2. Table of references Slides References 5 http://www.sciencedirect.com/ 6 www.cis.syr.edu/~wedu/Research/slides/Purdue04.ppt 7-9 Wireless Sensor Network Security: A Survey 11-13, 15-17 Karlof, C., and D. Wagner,” Secure Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Countermeasures” 14 Security for Sensor Networks: Cryptography and Beyond by David Wagner 18-20 www.cs.binghamton.edu/~kang/teaching/cs580s/secwsn.ppt 2 Security in Wireless sensor network
  3. 3. Introduction  What is wireless sensor network? The wireless network consists of hundreds or thousands of lowpower, low-cost nodes deployed to monitor and affect the environment Organization of Wireless sensor network Ref:-www.cis.syr.edu/~wedu/Research/slides/Purdue04.ppt Sensors Deploy 3 Security in Wireless sensor network
  4. 4. Benefits-WSN    Low Cost Easy to Deploy / Maintain Access and Measure unreachable events 4 Security in Wireless sensor network
  5. 5. Application of WSN      Military applications Enemy movement Environmental applications Habitat monitoring Forrest fire monitoring Health applications Tracking patients, doctors, drug administrators Home applications Other commercial applications 5 Security in Wireless sensor network
  6. 6. Need for Security  Protecting confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the communications and computations  Sensor networks have certain severe resource constraints due to their lack of data storage and power  Wireless Sensor networks are vulnerable to security attacks as medium of transmission of data is broadcasting Sensor nodes can be physically captured or destroyed  6 Security in Wireless sensor network
  7. 7. Requirements of security     Data confidentiality Sensor networks should not leak any sensitive data to any unauthorized neighboring nodes Data integrity The sensitive data should not be erased or changed by the adversary Data Freshness The data received by the nodes should be recent and should be the old message replayed Availability Limitation of data access 7 Security in Wireless sensor network
  8. 8. Standard approach     The standard approach to achieve the data confidentiality is to encrypt it with the secret key which is possessed by the intended receivers uTESLA is a protocol which uses asymmetric key cryptography and minimal packet overhead to achieve the data integrity Typical approach to achieve the data freshness is shared needs to be exchanged over a period of time Traditional encryption algorithm can be used to achieve make the data available 8 Security in Wireless sensor network
  9. 9. Obstacles of Sensor nodes Security     A sensor nodes have a small amount of memory and storage space for the code Energy is the biggest constraints in the wireless sensor network Unreliable communication Unattended Operation 9 Security in Wireless sensor network
  10. 10. Network layer attacks on WSN      Spoofed, altered and replayed routing information Selective Forwarding Sinkhole attacks The Sybil attack Wormholes 10 Security in Wireless sensor network
  11. 11. Description of attacks  Spoof, alter, or replay routing info - Create loops, attack or repel network traffic, partition the network, extend or shorten the source routes and generate false error messages  Selective forwarding - Malicious node selectively drops incoming packets - Adversary can also modify packets and forward these messages 11 Security in Wireless sensor network
  12. 12. Continued..  Sinkhole attacks - All packets are directed to base station - A malicious node advertises a high quality link to the base station to attract a lot of packets - Enable other attacks, e.g., selective forwarding or wormhole attack 12 Security in Wireless sensor network
  13. 13. Continued..  Sybil attack - A single node presents multiple ID’s to other nodes - Affect distributed storage, multi-path routing , topology maintenance and geographic routing  Wormhole Attack - Two colluding nodes - A node at one end of the wormhole advertises high quality link to the base station - Another node at the other end receives the attracted packets 13 Security in Wireless sensor network
  14. 14. Protocols and relevant attacks Protocol Relevant attacks TinyOS beaconing Bogus routing information, selective forwarding, sinkholes, Sybil, wormholes, HELLO floods Directed diffusion and multipath variant Bogus routing information, selective forwarding, sinkholes, Sybil, wormholes, HELLO floods Geographic routing (GPSR,GEAR) Bogus routing information, selective forwarding, Sybil Minimum cost forwarding Bogus routing information, selective forwarding, sinkholes, wormholes, HELLO floods Clustering based protocols Selective forwarding, HELLO floods (LEACH,TEEN,PEGASIS) Rumor routing Bogus routing information, selective forwarding, sinkholes, Sybil, wormholes Energy conserving topology maintenance Bogus routing information, Sybil, HELLO floods 14 Security in Wireless sensor network
  15. 15. Approaches against the attacks  Outsider attacks and link layer security Precaution against outsider attacks, e.g., Sybil attacks, selective forwarding, ACK spoofing - Cannot handle insider attacks  Sybil attack - Every node shares a unique secret key with the base station - Create pair wise shared key for msg authentication - Limit the number of neighbors for a node 15 Security in Wireless sensor network
  16. 16. Continued..  Wormhole, sinkhole attack - Cryptography may not help directly - Good routing protocol design - Geographic routing Tunnel packets from one part of the network and replay them in a different part. - 16 Security in Wireless sensor network
  17. 17. Continued..  Selective forwarding - Multi-path routing - Route messages over disjoint or Braided paths - Dynamically pick next hop from a set of candidates 17 Security in Wireless sensor network
  18. 18. Secure routing    To send data safely proper routing and forwarding is required in sensor network Injection attacks Insert malicious information in the network to produce inconsistencies Authentication can avoid the injection attacks Sensor networks are susceptible to node capture attacks Single node is compromised to take over the entire network 18 Security in Wireless sensor network
  19. 19. Secure group management    protocols for group management are required to - securely admit new group members - support secure group communication The outcome of the group computation is normally transmitted to a base station, therefore the output must be authenticated to ensure it comes from a valid group. Any solution must also be efficient in terms of time and energy (or involve low computation and communication costs). - precludes most classical group-management solutions 19 Security in Wireless sensor network
  20. 20. Secure data aggregation     Wireless sensor network sense the large and dense set of nodes The sensed values must be aggregated to avoid overwhelming amounts of traffic back to the base station Aggregation takes place depending on the architecture If the application tolerates approximate answers, powerful techniques are available. - randomly sampling a small fraction of nodes and checking that they have behaved properly supports detection of many different types of attacks 20 Security in Wireless sensor network

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