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UAV(unmanned aerial vehicle) and its application


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UAV(unmanned aerial vehicle) and its application

  2. 2. dedicated to ……….. MISSILE MAN DR A.P.J ABDUL KALAM (1931-2015)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot. It’s flight is either controlled autonomously by computers or under the remote control of a pilot on the ground.
  4. 4. DEFINITION & DIFFERENCE WITH MISSILES . UAV is defined as a "powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload". Cruise Missiles are not considered UAVs because, like many other guided missiles, the vehicle itself is an weapon that is not reused, even though it is also unmanned and in some cases remotely guided.
  5. 5. Birth of uAv  1916 by A. M. Lows named Kettering “BUG”  1935 (After World War-I), developed by the film star and model airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny  1959 first US aircraft  1964, U.S. Navy initiated highly classified UAVs into their first combat missions of the Vietnam War
  6. 6.  Target and decoy providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an enemy aircraft or missile  Battlefield intelligence Combat providing attack capability for high risk missions.  Research and development Further development of UAV technologies to be integrated into field deployed UAV aircraft.  Civil and Commercial UAVs UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applications.
  7. 7. TYPE ALTITUDE RANGE HANDHELD 600 m 2-5 km TACTICAL 5500 m 100km MALE (medium altitude long endurance) 7000 m 200 km HALE (high altitude long endurance) 9100 m 250 km HYPERSONIC 15200 m 300 km IN TERMS of ALTITUDE/RANGE
  9. 9.  PAYLOADS It is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight . Driven by the needs of the operational task. These can range from: (a) simple sub-systems consisting of video camera with a fixed lens having a mass as little as 200 g, through (b) a video system with a greater range capability, employing a longer focal length lens with zoom facility, gyro-stabilised and with pan and tilt function with a mass of probably 3–4 kg, to (c) a high-power radar having a mass, with its power supplies, of possibly up to 1000 kg. Some more sophisticated UAV carry a combination of different types of sensors, within a payload module or within a series of modules.
  10. 10. The Air Vehicle Depending on needs of the operational mission air vehicle is designed  primarily task is to carry the mission payload to its point of application,  operational range , air speed and endurance. The endurance and range requirement will determine the fuel load to be carried.
  11. 11. Navigation Systems It is necessary for the operators to know, on demand, where the aircraft is at any moment in time.  For fully autonomous operation, i.e. without any communication between the CS and the air vehicle, sufficient navigation equipment must be carried in the aircraft. This was achieved by radio tracking or by the recognition of geographical features. While GPS services a seamless navigation with cheap receiver, it may not receive the satellite signal by the obstacles or the signal jamming. It is GPS/INS(inertial navigation system) sensor fusion that might overcome these constraints. The ground test showed that GPS/INS sensor fusion system could provide well the altitude information as well as the trajectory according to a vehicle movement.
  12. 12.  where communication between aircraft and CS is virtually continuous (i.e for unautonomous system), or where there is a risk of the GPS system being blocked, other means of navigation are possible fall-back options……  Radar tracking Here the aircraft is fitted with a transponder which responds to a RADAR scanner emitting from the CS transmitter, so that the aircraft position is seen on the CS radar display in bearing and range.  Radio tracking Here the radio signal carrying data from the aircraft to the CS is tracked in bearing from the CS, whilst its range is determined from the time taken for a coded signal to travel between the aircraft and the CS.  Direct reckoning If the mission is over land and the aircraft carries a TV camera, surveying the ground, its position can be confirmed by relating visible geographical features with their known position on a map.
  13. 13.  Communications The principal, and probably the most demanding, requirement for the communications system is to provide the data links (up and down) between the CS and the aircraft. (a) Uplink (i.e. from the CS to the aircraft) i) Transmit flight path tasking which is then stored in the aircraft automatic flight control system ii) real-time flight control commands such as updated positional information to the aircraft INS where relevant. (b) Downlink (i.e. from the aircraft to the CS) i) Transmit aircraft positional data ii) payload imagery iii) aircraft housekeeping data, e.g. fuel state, engine temperature, etc. to the CS.
  14. 14.  APPLICATIONS A. Beyond the military applications of UAVs with whi ch "drones" became most associated, numerous ci vil aviation uses have been developed, including B. aerial surveying of crops (land surveying) C. acrobatic aerial footage in filmmaking, D. search and rescue operations, E. inspecting power lines and pipelines, F. counting wildlife, G. delivering medical supplies to remote or otherwise inaccessible regions, H. surveillance & border patrol missions, I. forest fire detection, J. detection of illegal hunting, K. fire and large accident investigation, L. landslide measurement, M. illegal landfill detection, N. and crowd monitoring.
  15. 15.  DISADVANTAGES Civilian casualties Can be hacked or given viruses Too small for transportation of large materials Low resistance to weather Cannot refuel in flight If contact is lost with the ground station, the vehicle may be lost.
  16. 16. INDIAN UAV  DRDO RUSTOM a medium altitude Long endurance combat air vehicle Range about 250km,payload 95kg  DRDO NISHANT day night capability UAV range about 160km,payload 45kg
  17. 17.  LAKSHYA high speed UAV ,range about 150 km , rocket assisted launching system , only for millitary purpose.
  18. 18.  CONCLUSION However, the very dynamic nature of the field also creates a significant amount of uncertainty. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are an exciting field in the world of aviation, with new discoveries. Over the next 16 years, UAVs will become a significant component of military, civil, and perhaps even commercial aviation.