AND ITS APPLICATIONS
dedicated to ………..
MISSILE MAN DR A.P.J ABDUL KALAM (1931-2015)
An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) is
an aircraft without a human pilot.
It’s flight is either controlled
autonomously by computers or under
the remote control of a pilot on the
DEFINITION & DIFFERENCE WITH
UAV is defined as a
"powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator,
uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly
autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or
recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload".
Cruise Missiles are not considered UAVs because,
like many other guided missiles, the vehicle itself is an
weapon that is not reused,
even though it is also unmanned and in some cases
Birth of uAv
1916 by A. M. Lows named
1935 (After World War-I), developed by the film star
and model airplane enthusiast Reginald Denny
1959 first US aircraft
1964, U.S. Navy initiated highly classified UAVs into
their first combat missions of the Vietnam War
Target and decoy
providing ground and aerial gunnery a target that simulates an
enemy aircraft or missile
Combat providing attack capability for high risk missions.
Research and development
Further development of UAV technologies to be integrated into
field deployed UAV aircraft.
Civil and Commercial UAVs
UAVs specifically designed for civil and commercial applications.
TYPE ALTITUDE RANGE
HANDHELD 600 m 2-5 km
TACTICAL 5500 m 100km
7000 m 200 km
(high altitude long
9100 m 250 km
HYPERSONIC 15200 m 300 km
IN TERMS of ALTITUDE/RANGE
It is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually
measured in terms of weight .
Driven by the needs of the operational task. These can range from:
(a) simple sub-systems consisting of video camera with a ﬁxed lens
having a mass as little as 200 g, through
(b) a video system with a greater range capability, employing a
longer focal length lens with zoom facility, gyro-stabilised and with pan
and tilt function with a mass of probably 3–4 kg, to
(c) a high-power radar having a mass, with its power supplies, of
possibly up to 1000 kg.
Some more sophisticated UAV carry a combination of different types of
sensors, within a payload module or within a series of modules.
The Air Vehicle
Depending on needs of the operational mission air vehicle is designed
primarily task is to carry the mission payload to its point of
operational range , air speed and endurance.
The endurance and range requirement will determine the
fuel load to be carried.
It is necessary for the operators to know, on demand, where the aircraft is
at any moment in time.
For fully autonomous operation, i.e. without any communication between
the CS and the air vehicle, sufﬁcient navigation equipment must be
carried in the aircraft. This was achieved by radio tracking or by the
recognition of geographical features. While GPS services a seamless
navigation with cheap receiver, it may not receive the satellite signal by
the obstacles or the signal jamming. It is GPS/INS(inertial navigation
system) sensor fusion that might overcome these constraints. The ground
test showed that GPS/INS sensor fusion system could provide well the
altitude information as well as the trajectory according to a vehicle
where communication between aircraft and CS is virtually continuous
(i.e for unautonomous system), or where there is a risk of the GPS system
being blocked, other means of navigation are possible fall-back options……
Here the aircraft is ﬁtted with a transponder
which responds to a RADAR scanner emitting
from the CS transmitter, so that the aircraft
position is seen on the CS radar display in
bearing and range.
Here the radio signal carrying data from the aircraft to the CS is tracked in
bearing from the CS, whilst its range is determined from the time taken for a
coded signal to travel between the aircraft and the CS.
If the mission is over land and the aircraft carries a TV camera, surveying
the ground, its position can be conﬁrmed by relating visible geographical
features with their known position on a map.
The principal, and probably the most demanding, requirement for the
communications system is to provide the data links (up and down) between
the CS and the aircraft.
(a) Uplink (i.e. from the CS to the aircraft)
i) Transmit ﬂight path tasking which is then stored in the aircraft automatic
ﬂight control system
ii) real-time ﬂight control commands such as updated positional information
to the aircraft INS where relevant.
(b) Downlink (i.e. from the aircraft to the CS)
i) Transmit aircraft positional data
ii) payload imagery
iii) aircraft housekeeping data, e.g. fuel state, engine temperature, etc. to
A. Beyond the military applications of UAVs with whi
ch "drones" became most associated, numerous ci
vil aviation uses have been developed, including
B. aerial surveying of crops (land surveying)
C. acrobatic aerial footage in filmmaking,
D. search and rescue operations,
E. inspecting power lines and pipelines,
F. counting wildlife,
G. delivering medical supplies to remote or
otherwise inaccessible regions,
H. surveillance &
border patrol missions,
I. forest fire detection,
J. detection of illegal hunting,
K. fire and large accident investigation,
L. landslide measurement,
M. illegal landfill detection,
N. and crowd monitoring.
Can be hacked or given viruses
Too small for transportation of large materials
Low resistance to weather
Cannot refuel in flight
If contact is lost with the ground station, the
vehicle may be lost.
DRDO RUSTOM a medium altitude
Long endurance combat air vehicle
Range about 250km,payload 95kg
DRDO NISHANT day night capability
UAV range about 160km,payload 45kg
high speed UAV ,range about 150 km , rocket assisted
launching system , only for millitary purpose.
However, the very dynamic nature of the field
also creates a significant amount of
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are an exciting field
in the world of aviation, with new discoveries.
Over the next 16 years, UAVs will become a
significant component of military, civil, and
perhaps even commercial aviation.