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It's Not About Working Software After All!


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This lecture was given by Mary Poppendieck, Lean software development expert, in the recent AgileTour 2010 (Haifa Israel) which was organized by Ignite and was held on Nov 11 2010 in the Technion, the leading academic institute for technological studies in Israel

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It's Not About Working Software After All!

  1. 1. l e a nsoftware development www.poppendieck.comMary It’s Not About Working Software First Build the Right Thing
  2. 2. l e a n Gróf András (Andrew Grove) Strategic Inflection Point From: Only the Paranoid Survive, by Andy Grove, Business goes on to new heights Business declines 10x change in an element of the business. What worked before doesn’t work now. The executives are the last to know. November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC2
  3. 3. l e a n Is Agile Development At An Inflection Point?  Processes and tools  Comprehensive documentation  Contract negotiation  Following a plan  Individuals and interactions  Working software  Customer collaboration  Responding to change *Kent Beck, Startup Lessons Learned – April 23, 2010 Version 1.0 – Contract Focus Version 2.0 – Development Focus  Team vision and initiative  Validated learning  Customer discovery  Initiating Change Version 3.0* - Customer Focus November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC3 Inflection Point: Customer Focus 2000 2004 2008 2012
  4. 4. l e a n Team Vision and Initiative Most product failures are caused by a lack of Customers. November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC4 There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all. – Peter Durcker Not this: But this: P R I O R I T I Z E D !
  5. 5. l e a n Validated Learning Consider the Entrepreneur – Starts out with no customers Assembles a business team:  Marketing  Development  Quality Assurance  Operations  Support  Finance  Others? The Objective: Minimum Viable Product  Does it do the job?  Will customers pay for it?  What do we need to learn next? Repeat......multiple times  Experiment – Learn – Adjust November 105 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC First be sure that you are building the right thing, then be sure that you are building the thing right.
  6. 6. l e a n Customer Discovery Brilliant Systems are the result of a matching of mental models between those developing a system and those who will be using the system. November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC6 Ethnography Ideation
  7. 7. l e a n Initiating Change WebSphere® Service Registry and Repository  10 month deadline – didn’t know the details  Solution: Get customer feedback  Early Access Program  Customers download new version each month  User feedback on discussion forum  Direct developer-customer interaction  Changed course midstream  User feedback beat marketing input  Phenomenal sales the first day of release  Customers knew they would get what they needed  Support Calls down by an order of magnitude  Mental model of users and developers matched November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC7
  8. 8. l e a n Build the Right Thing – Systems Engineering 1. Control projects by quantified critical-few results: 1 page! 2. Make sure those results are business results, not technical. 3. Give developers the freedom to discover how to deliver those results. “The worst scenario I can imagine is when we allow real customers, users, and our own salespeople to dictate ‘functions and features’ to the developers, carefully disguised as ‘customer requirements’. Maybe conveyed by our product owners.” “If you go slightly below the surface of these false ‘requirements’… you will immediately find that they are not really requirements. They are really bad amateur design for the ‘real’ requirements.” 4. Estimate the impacts of designs on the quantified goals. 5. Select designs with the best value impacts for their costs, do them first. “Focus on value estimates, not effort estimates.” 6. Involve stakeholders every week. “There are many stakeholders with changing priorities. The team needs to keep a line open to all of them.” November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC8 Quotes From: Value- Driven Development Principles and Values – Agility is the Tool, Not the Master; by Tom Gilb, –Agile Record, July 2010 Tom Gilb
  9. 9. l e a n Build the Right Thing – Less is More Cost of Complexity The Biggest Opportunity to Increase Software Development Productivity is to Write Less Code! Cost Time Features / Functions Used in a Typical System Standish Group Study Reported at XP2002 by Jim Johnson, Chairman Always 7% Often 13% Sometimes 16% Rarely 19% Never 45% Rarely / Never Used: 64% Often / Always Used: 20% November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC9
  10. 10. l e a n Build the Right Thing – Simple Design November 1010 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC Simple Design = Focus It’s only by saying ‘no’ that you can concentrate on the things that are really important. – Apple CEO: Steve Jobs More features make a product forgettable. – Apple Designer: Johnathan Ive The worst thing you can do is to do what the customers ask. You have to understand their problem and solve it. – Tandberg Founder: Per Haug Kogstad And finally: Don’t – ever – automate a process without simplifying it first! 1. No internal changes required of a network in order to be connected to the Internet. 2. Communications on a best-effort basis. 3. No information retained by black boxes (gateways) connecting the networks. 4. No global control at the operations level.
  11. 11. l e a n Build the Right Thing – Whole Team Case Study: Large, Successful Web Site  Six Vertical Markets  1 team / market  Web analytics – tied to revenue  Most Product Managers struggled to produce stories.  “Product Owners” were added to keep up with the workload.  These teams faltered.  A few Product Managers negotiated overall objectives with the development team, which figured out how to develop features to meet the high level goals.  Web analytics were displayed and updated in real time.  Team members quickly adjusted the system to improve key metrics.  These teams were highly engaged; their business was very successful. November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC11
  12. 12. l e a n Build the Right Thing – Optimize the Whole Optimizing a part of a system will always sub-optimize the overall system. Beware of Layer Teams! “The” Business Process Software Operations Support F e a t u r e F e a t u r e F e a t u r e F e a t u r e F e a t u r e November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC12
  13. 13. l e a n Case Study: It’s all about scale. 2000 – Hit the wall 2001 – Started transition to services Each Owned by a 2PT  All functions – including operations! Encapsulate data and business logic Basic Services and Consolidator Services 2009 – Completed Transition. Conway’s Law Organizations which design systems are constrained to produce designs which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations. November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC13
  14. 14. l e a n Cost Center Disease What’s Wrong with Cost Centers? No way to focus on superior customer outcomes No basis for trade-off decisions No engagement No passion Focus on cost reduction instead of delivering value. Where is the disease most likely? IT departments Government Organizations Outsourcing Companies November 1014 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC
  15. 15. l e a n People Strive to Reach Their Full Potential November 1015 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC Remember the times when:  You are deeply engaged  Distractions disappear  Time evaporates This is called FLOW. Factors that Lead to Better Performance & Personal Satisfaction: Autonomy:  The desire to be self-directed. Mastery:  The urge to get better. Purpose:  The aspiration to make a contribution to something larger than ourselves. Skills Challenges Boredom Anxiety
  16. 16. l e a n An Inflection Point? Open Source “The impossible public good.”  Incredibly stable  Impossibly complex  No monetary rewards/sanctions  No central authority (in the traditional sense) This defies known social and economic theory.  Markets and hierarchies are no longer the only organizing mechanisms available. In fact, peer networks can work better. November 1016 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC Mark Shuttleworth  Born in Welkom, South Africa; went to school in Cape Town.  Started Thawte in 1995; purchased by VeriSign in 1999 for ~$575million.  Became a cosmonaut in 2002, @ ~$20 million and 18 months of training.  Founded Canonical in 2004 to support the development of a Linux distribution for desktops and laptops – to make computers more affordable for all.  Ubuntu* has won the hearts and minds of open source developers and has gained significant laptop/ desktop market share.  Mark bet a fortune that Ubuntu would be a successful volunteer effort – and he’s winning the bet.  This is a new economic landscape. *Ubuntu means:  Respect  Helpfulness  Sharing  Community  Caring  Trust  Unselfishness
  17. 17. l e a n Passion 3.0 Know why. Follow your passion. Be great at what you do. Teamwork 3.0 Semi-autonomous teams with internal leaders. End-to-end responsibility. Economics 3.0 The new scarcity: The time, energy & brainpower of bright, creative people. Motivation 3.0 Autonomy Mastery Purpose Upgrade to Version 3.0 November 10 Copyright©2010 Poppendieck.LLC17 The Next Generation
  18. 18. l e a nsoftware development www.poppendieck.comMary Thank You! More Information: