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Lean & Agile
Enterprise Frameworks
For Managing Large U.S. Gov’t
Cloud Computing Projects
Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSEP, AC...
Author BACKGROUND
 Gov’t contractor with 32+ years of IT experience
 B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys....
Lean & Agile FRAMEWORK?
 Frame-work (frām'wûrk') A support structure, skeletal
enclosure, or scaffolding platform; Hypoth...
How do Lean & Agile INTERSECT?
4
 Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches
 Agile directly supports six princi...
Basic SCRUM Framework
Schwaber, K., & Beedle, M. (2001). Agile software development with scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pr...
Basic SCRUM-XP Hybrid
Augustine, S. (2008). Certified scrum master training: Not just how, buy why. Herndon, VA: LitheSpee...
Layton, M. C., & Maurer, R. (2011). Agile project management for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.
 Created by Mark...
Agile ENTERPRISE FRAMEWORKS
8
 Dozens of Agile project management models emerged
 Many stem from principles of Extreme P...
Enterprise Scrum (ESCRUM)
Schwaber, K. (2007). The enterprise and scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.
 Created by Ken Sc...
Scaled Agile Framework (SAFE)
 Created by Dean Leffingwell of Rally in 2007
 Knowledge to scale agile practices to enter...
Large Scale Scrum (LESS)
 Created by Craig Larman of Valtech in 2008
 Scrum for larger projects of 500 to 1,500 people
...
Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD)
 Created by Scott Ambler of IBM in 2012
 People, learning-centric hybrid agile IT deliv...
Recipes for Agile Governance (RAGE)
 Created by Kevin Thompson of cPrime in 2013
 Agile governance model for large Scrum...
Agile Enterprise F/W COMPARISON
 Numerous lean-agile enterprise frameworks emerging
 eScrum & LeSS were 1st (but SAFe & ...
SAFe REVISITED
 Proven, public well-defined F/W for scaling Lean-Agile
 Synchronizes alignment, collaboration, and deliv...
SAFe—Scaling at PORTFOLIO Level
 Vision, central strategy, and decentralized control
 Investment themes, Kanban, and obj...
SAFe—Scaling at PROGRAM Level
 Product and release management team-of-team
 Common mission, backlog, estimates, and spri...
SAFe—Scaling at TEAM Level
 Empowered, self-organizing cross-functional teams
 Hybrid of Scrum PM & XP technical best pr...
SAFe BENEFITS
19Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) case studies. Denver, CO: Leffingwell, LLC.
Rico, D....
SAFe CASE STUDIES
 Most U.S. Fortune 500 companies adopting SAFe
 Goal to integrate enterprise, portfolios, and systems
...
SAFe SUMMARY
 Lean-agile frameworks & tools emerging in droves
 Focus on scaling agility to enterprises & portfolios
 S...
Dave’s PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES
22
Software
Quality
Mgt.
Technical
Project
Mgt.
Software
Development
Methods
Organization...
Books on ROI of SW METHODS
 Guides to software methods for business leaders
 Communicates the business value of IT appro...
Backup Slides
Agile for EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
 1st-generation systems used hardwired logic
 2nd-generation systems used PROMS & FPGAs
 3rd...
 SAFe rapidly evolving & adapting to market needs
 A “draft” version was made for “systems engineering”
 SoS, Lean, Kan...
27
Kovacs, K. (2015). Comparison of nosql databases. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://kkovacs.eu
Sahai, S. (2013)...
 AWS is most popular cloud computing platform
 Scalable service with end-to-end security & privacy
 AWS is compliant & ...
 Created by Jez Humble of ThoughtWorks in 2011
 Includes CM, build, testing, integration, release, etc.
 Goal is one-to...
 Goal of continuous delivery is releases vs. build/tests
 Market-driven releases creates rapid business value
 Assembla...
 Google early adopter of agile methods and Scrum
 Google also uses agile testing at enterprise scale
 15,000 developers...
 Amazon adopted agile in 1999 and Scrum in 2004
 Using enterprise-scale continuous delivery by 2010
 30,000+ developers...
Agile LEADERSHIP Models
Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile coaching in high-conflict environments. Retrieved April 11, 2013 from ht...
Agile ORG. CHANGE Models
Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Ra...
Agile ACQUISITION-CONTRACT Model
Rico, D. F. (2011). The necessity of new contract models for agile project management. Fa...
Key Agile SCALING POINTERS
 One must think and act small to accomplish big things
 Slow down to speed up, speed up ‘til ...
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Lean & Agile Enterprise Frameworks: For Managing Large U.S. Government Cloud Computing Projects

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This is a presentation on "Lean & Agile Enterprise Frameworks: For Managing Large U.S. Government Cloud Computing Projects," which are emerging models for managing high-risk, time-sensitive R&D-oriented new product development (NPD) projects with demanding customers and fast-changing market conditions (at the enterprise, portfolio, and program levels). It establishes the context, provide a definition, and describe the value-system for lean and agile program and project management. It provides a brief survey and comparative analysis of the pros and cons of emerging lean and agile frameworks such as Enterprise Scrum, LeSS, DaD, SAFe, and RAGE. Then it describes the Scaled Agile Academy's Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) in greater detail (which is the de facto international standard for scaling the use of agile methods to the enterprise, portfolio, and program levels for both systems and software development). SAFe is hybrid model best known for "blending" megatrends such as lean and agile principles into a single unified framework, establishing an authoritative foundation for scaling agile methods to large-scale private and public sector programs, and unifying East (lean) and West (agile) into a common language for systems and software development that is both lean "and" agile. In addition to SAFe case studies, late-breaking developments on the use of "Continuous Delivery," "DevOps," and bleeding-edge "Unstructured Web Databases" at Google and Amazon to automate large sections of the enterprise value stream will be discussed (which has been successfully used by some of the world's largest firms to boost organizational productivity by one or two orders of magnitude). This briefing has been warmly received by multiple U.S. government agencies, contractors, and PMI audiences throughout Baltimore-Washington, DC.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Lean & Agile Enterprise Frameworks: For Managing Large U.S. Government Cloud Computing Projects

  1. 1. Lean & Agile Enterprise Frameworks For Managing Large U.S. Gov’t Cloud Computing Projects Dr. David F. Rico, PMP, CSEP, ACP, CSM, SAFe Twitter: @dr_david_f_rico Website: http://www.davidfrico.com LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/davidfrico Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/david.f.rico.9 Agile Capabilities: http://davidfrico.com/rico-capability-agile.pdf Agile Resources: http://www.davidfrico.com/daves-agile-resources.htm Agile Cheat Sheet: http://davidfrico.com/key-agile-theories-ideas-and-principles.pdf
  2. 2. Author BACKGROUND  Gov’t contractor with 32+ years of IT experience  B.S. Comp. Sci., M.S. Soft. Eng., & D.M. Info. Sys.  Large gov’t projects in U.S., Far/Mid-East, & Europe 2  Career systems & software engineering methodologist  Lean-Agile, Six Sigma, CMMI, ISO 9001, DoD 5000  NASA, USAF, Navy, Army, DISA, & DARPA projects  Published seven books & numerous journal articles  Intn’l keynote speaker, 100+ talks to 11,000 people  Adjunct at GWU, UMBC, UMUC, Argosy, & NDMU  Specializes in metrics, models, & cost engineering  Cloud Computing, SOA, Web Services, FOSS, etc. 
  3. 3. Lean & Agile FRAMEWORK?  Frame-work (frām'wûrk') A support structure, skeletal enclosure, or scaffolding platform; Hypothetical model  A multi-tiered framework for using lean & agile methods at the organization, program, and project levels  An approach embracing values and principles of lean thinking, product development flow, & agile methods  Adaptable framework for collaboration, prioritizing work, iterative development, & responding to change  Tools for agile scaling, rigorous and disciplined planning & architecture, and a sharp focus on product quality  Maximizes BUSINESS VALUE of organizations, programs, & projects with lean-agile values, principles, & practices Leffingwell, D. (2011). Agile software requirements: Lean requirements practices for teams, programs, and the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 3 
  4. 4. How do Lean & Agile INTERSECT? 4  Agile is naturally lean and based on small batches  Agile directly supports six principles of lean thinking  Agile may be converted to a continuous flow system Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking: Banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. New York, NY: Free Press. Reinertsen, D. G. (2009). The principles of product development flow: Second generation lean product development. New York, NY: Celeritas. Reagan, R. B., & Rico, D. F. (2010). Lean and agile acquisition and systems engineering: A paradigm whose time has come. DoD AT&L Magazine, 39(6).    Economic View Decentralization Fast Feedback Control Cadence & Small Batches Manage Queues/ Exploit Variability WIP Constraints & Kanban Flow PrinciplesAgile Values Customer Collaboration Empowered Teams Iterative Delivery Responding to Change Lean Pillars Respect for People Continuous Improvement Customer Value Relationships Customer Pull Continuous Flow Perfection Value Stream Lean Principles  Customer relationships, satisfaction, trust, and loyalty  Team authority, empowerment, and resources  Team identification, cohesion, and communication Lean & Agile Practices  Product vision, mission, needs, and capabilities  Product scope, constraints, and business value  Product objectives, specifications, and performance  As is policies, processes, procedures, and instructions  To be business processes, flowcharts, and swim lanes  Initial workflow analysis, metrication, and optimization  Batch size, work in process, and artifact size constraints  Cadence, queue size, buffers, slack, and bottlenecks  Workflow, test, integration, and deployment automation  Roadmaps, releases, iterations, and product priorities  Epics, themes, feature sets, features, and user stories  Product demonstrations, feedback, and new backlogs  Refactor, test driven design, and continuous integration  Standups, retrospectives, and process improvements  Organization, project, and process adaptability/flexibility
  5. 5. Basic SCRUM Framework Schwaber, K., & Beedle, M. (2001). Agile software development with scrum. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.  Created by Jeff Sutherland at Easel in 1993  Product backlog comprised of needed features  Sprint-to-sprint, iterative, adaptive emergent model 5
  6. 6. Basic SCRUM-XP Hybrid Augustine, S. (2008). Certified scrum master training: Not just how, buy why. Herndon, VA: LitheSpeed.  Created by Sanjiv Augustine of Lithespeed in 2008  Release planning used to create product backlog  Extends Scrum beyond Sprint-to-sprint planning Initial Planning Sprint Cycle Discovery Session  Agile Training  Project Discovery  Process Discovery  Team Discovery  Initial Backlog Release Planning  Business Case  Desired Backlog  Hi-Level Estimates  Prioritize Backlog  Finalize Backlog Product Backlog  Prioritized Requirements Sprint Planning  Set Sprint Capacity  Identify Tasks  Estimate Tasks Sprint Review  Present Backlog Items  Record Feedback  Adjust Backlog Daily Scrum  Completed Backlog Items  Planned Backlog Items  Impediments to Progress Sprint Backlog  List of Technical Tasks Assigned to a Sprint Potentially Shippable Product Working Operational Software Sprint  Select Tasks and Create Tests  Create Simple Designs  Code and Test Software Units  Perform Integration Testing  Maintain Daily Burndown Chart  Update Sprint Backlog Sprint Retrospective  6
  7. 7. Layton, M. C., & Maurer, R. (2011). Agile project management for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.  Created by Mark Layton at PlatinumEdge in 2012  Mix of new product development, XP, and Scrum  Simple codification of common XP-Scrum hybrid 7 Simplified AGILE PROJECT MGT F/W
  8. 8. Agile ENTERPRISE FRAMEWORKS 8  Dozens of Agile project management models emerged  Many stem from principles of Extreme Programming  All include product, project, & team management Schwaber, K. (2007). The enterprise and scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press. Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Ambler, S. W., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined agile delivery: A practitioner's guide to agile software delivery in the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Thompson, K. (2013). cPrime’s R.A.G.E. is unleashed: Agile leaders rejoice! Retrieved March 28, 2014, from http://www.cprime.com/tag/agile-governance eScrum - 2007 - SAFe - 2007 - LeSS - 2007 - DaD - 2012 - RAGE - 2013 -  Product Mgt  Program Mgt  Project Mgt  Process Mgt  Business Mgt  Market Mgt  Strategic Mgt  Portfolio Mgt  Program Mgt  Team Mgt  Quality Mgt  Delivery Mgt  Business Mgt  Portfolio Mgt  Product Mgt  Area Mgt  Sprint Mgt  Release Mgt  Business Mgt  Portfolio Mgt  Inception  Construction  Iterations  Transition  Business  Governance  Portfolio  Program  Project  Delivery 
  9. 9. Enterprise Scrum (ESCRUM) Schwaber, K. (2007). The enterprise and scrum. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.  Created by Ken Schwaber of Scrum Alliance in 2007  Application of Scrum at any place in the enterprise  Basic Scrum with extensive backlog grooming 9 
  10. 10. Scaled Agile Framework (SAFE)  Created by Dean Leffingwell of Rally in 2007  Knowledge to scale agile practices to enterprise  Hybrid of Kanban, XP release planning, and Scrum 10Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 
  11. 11. Large Scale Scrum (LESS)  Created by Craig Larman of Valtech in 2008  Scrum for larger projects of 500 to 1,500 people  Model to nest product owners, backlogs, and teams 11Larman, C., & Vodde, B. (2008). Scaling lean and agile development: Thinking and organizational tools for large-scale scrum. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Product OwnerProduct Backlog Area Product Owner Area Product Backlog Sprint Backlog Daily Scrum 15 minutes Product Backlog Refinement 5 - 10% of Sprint 2 - 4 Week Sprint 1 Day Feature Team + Scrum Master Sprint Planning II 2 - 4 hours Sprint Planning I 2 - 4 hours Potentially Shippable Product Increment Sprint Review Joint Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective 
  12. 12. Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD)  Created by Scott Ambler of IBM in 2012  People, learning-centric hybrid agile IT delivery  Scrum mapping to a model-driven RUP framework 12Ambler, S. W., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined agile delivery: A practitioner's guide to agile software delivery in the enterprise. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. 
  13. 13. Recipes for Agile Governance (RAGE)  Created by Kevin Thompson of cPrime in 2013  Agile governance model for large Scrum projects  Traditional-agile hybrid of portfolio-project planning 13Thompson, K. (2013). cPrime’s R.A.G.E. is unleashed: Agile leaders rejoice! Retrieved March 28, 2014, from http://www.cprime.com/tag/agile-governance 
  14. 14. Agile Enterprise F/W COMPARISON  Numerous lean-agile enterprise frameworks emerging  eScrum & LeSS were 1st (but SAFe & DaD dominate)  SAFe is the most widely-used (with ample resources) 14Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) comparison. Retrieved June 4, 2014 from http://davidfrico.com/safe-comparison.xls Factor eScrum SAFe LeSS DaD RAGE Simple     Well-Defined  Web Portal  Books     Measurable    Results   Training & Cert  Consultants   Tools  Popularity   International    Fortune 500   Government  Lean-Kanban       
  15. 15. SAFe REVISITED  Proven, public well-defined F/W for scaling Lean-Agile  Synchronizes alignment, collaboration, and deliveries  Quality, execution, alignment, & transparency focus 15Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe). Retrieved June 2, 2014 from http://www.scaledagileframework.com     Portfolio Team Program
  16. 16. SAFe—Scaling at PORTFOLIO Level  Vision, central strategy, and decentralized control  Investment themes, Kanban, and objective metrics  Value delivery via epics, streams, and release trains 16Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. AGILE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT ● Decentralized decision making ● Demand-based continuous flow ● Lightweight epic business cases ● Decentralized rolling wave planning ● Objective measures & milestones ● Agile estimating and planning Strategy Investment Funding Governance Program Management    
  17. 17. SAFe—Scaling at PROGRAM Level  Product and release management team-of-team  Common mission, backlog, estimates, and sprints  Value delivery via program-level epics and features 17Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. AGILE RELEASE TRAINS ● Driven by vision and roadmap ● Lean, economic prioritization ● Frequent, quality deliveries ● Fast customer feedback ● Fixed, reliable cadence ● Regular inspect & adapt CI Alignment Collaboration Synchronization Value Delivery     
  18. 18. SAFe—Scaling at TEAM Level  Empowered, self-organizing cross-functional teams  Hybrid of Scrum PM & XP technical best practices  Value delivery via empowerment, quality, and CI 18Leffingwell, D. (2007). Scaling software agility: Best practices for large enterprises. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. AGILE CODE QUALITY ● Pair development ● Emergent design ● Test-first ● Refactoring ● Continuous integration ● Collective ownership Product Quality Customer Satisfaction Predictability Speed       
  19. 19. SAFe BENEFITS 19Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) case studies. Denver, CO: Leffingwell, LLC. Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) benefits. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://davidfrico.com/safe-benefits.txt  Cycle time and quality are most notable improvement  Productivity on par with Scrum at 10X above normal  Data shows SAFe scales to teams of 1,000+ people Benefit Nokia SEI Telstra BMC Trade Station Discount Tire Valpak Mitchell John Deere Spotify Comcast Average App Maps Trading DW IT Trading Retail Market Insurance Agricult. Cable PoS Weeks 95.3 2 52 52 52 52 51 People 520 400 75 300 100 90 300 800 150 120 286 Teams 66 30 9 10 10 9 60 80 15 12 30 Satis 25% 29% 15% 23% Costs 50% 10% 30% Product 2000% 25% 10% 678% Quality 95% 44% 50% 50% 60% Cycle 600% 600% 300% 50% 300% 370% ROI 2500% 200% 1350% Morale 43% 63% 10% 39%   
  20. 20. SAFe CASE STUDIES  Most U.S. Fortune 500 companies adopting SAFe  Goal to integrate enterprise, portfolios, and systems  Capital One going through end-to-end SAFe adoption 20 John Deere Spotify Comcast • Agricultural automation • 800 developers on 80 teams • Rolled out SAFe in one year • Transitioned to open spaces • Field issue resolution up 42% • Quality improvement up 50% • Warranty expense down 50% • Time to production down 20% • Time to market down 20% • Job engagement up 10% • Television cable/DVR boxes • Embedded & server-side • 150 developers on 15 teams • Cycle time - 12 to 4 months • Support 11 million+ DVRs • Design features vs. layers • Releases delivered on-time • 100% capabilities delivered • 95% requirements delivered • Fully automated sprint tests • GUI-based point of sale sys • Switched from CMMI to SAFe • 120 developers on 12 teams • QA to new feature focus • Used Rally adoption model • 10% productivity improvement • 10% cost of quality reduction • 200% improved defect density • Production defects down 50% • Value vs. compliance focus Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) case studies. Denver, CO: Leffingwell, LLC. Rico, D. F. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe) benefits. Retrieved June 2, 2014, from http://davidfrico.com/safe-benefits.txt 
  21. 21. SAFe SUMMARY  Lean-agile frameworks & tools emerging in droves  Focus on scaling agility to enterprises & portfolios  SAFe emerging as the clear international leader 21 Rico, D. F. (2014). Dave's Notes: For Scaling with SAFe, DaD, LeSS, RAGE, ScrumPLoP, Enterprise Scrum, etc. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://davidfrico.com  SAFe is extremely well-defined in books and Internet  SAFe has ample training, certification, consulting, etc.  SAFe leads to increased productivity and quality  SAFe is scalable to teams of up to 1,000+ developers  SAFe is preferred agile approach of Global 500 firms  SAFe is agile choice for public sector IT acquisitions  SAFe cases and performance data rapidly emerging 
  22. 22. Dave’s PROFESSIONAL CAPABILITIES 22 Software Quality Mgt. Technical Project Mgt. Software Development Methods Organization Change Systems Engineering Cost Estimating Government Contracting Government Acquisitions Lean Kanban Big Data, Cloud, NoSQL Workflow Automation Metrics, Models, & SPC Six Sigma BPR, IDEF0, & DoDAF DoD 5000, TRA, & SRA PSP, TSP, & Code Reviews CMMI & ISO 9001 Innovation Management Statistics, CFA, EFA, & SEM Research Methods Evolutionary Design Valuation — Cost-Benefit Analysis, B/CR, ROI, NPV, BEP, Real Options, etc. Lean-Agile — Scrum, SAFe, Continuous Integration & Delivery, DevOps, etc. STRENGTHS – Data Mining  Gathering & Reporting Performance Data  Strategic Planning  Executive & Manage- ment Briefs  Brownbags & Webinars  White Papers  Tiger-Teams  Short-Fuse Tasking  Audits & Reviews  Etc. ● Action-oriented. Do first (talk about it later). ● Data-mining/analysis. Collect facts (then report findings). ● Simplification. Communicating complex ideas (in simple terms). ● Git-r-done. Prefer short, high-priority tasks (vs. long bureaucratic projects). ● Team player. Consensus-oriented collaboration (vs. top-down autocratic control). PMP, CSEP, ACP, CSM, & SAFE 32 YEARS IN IT INDUSTRY
  23. 23. Books on ROI of SW METHODS  Guides to software methods for business leaders  Communicates the business value of IT approaches  Rosetta stones to unlocking ROI of software methods  http://davidfrico.com/agile-book.htm (Description)  http://davidfrico.com/roi-book.htm (Description) 23 
  24. 24. Backup Slides
  25. 25. Agile for EMBEDDED SYSTEMS  1st-generation systems used hardwired logic  2nd-generation systems used PROMS & FPGAs  3rd-generation systems use APP. SW & COTS HW 25 Pries, K. H., & Quigley, J. M. (2010). Scrum project management. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Pries, K. H., & Quigley, J. M. (2009). Project management of complex and embedded systems. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications. Thomke, S. (2003). Experimentation matters: Unlocking the potential of new technologies for innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.  ● Short Lead ● Least Cost ● Lowest Risk ● 90% Software ● COTS Hardware ● Early, Iterative Dev. ● Continuous V&V ● Moderate Lead ● Moderate Cost ● Moderate Risk ● 50% Hardware ● COTS Components ● Midpoint Testing ● “Some” Early V&V ● Long Lead ● Highest Cost ● Highest Risk ● 90% Hardware ● Custom Hardware ● Linear, Staged Dev. ● Late Big-Bang I&T AGILE “Software Model” - MOST FLEXIBLE - NEO-TRADITIONAL “FPGA Model” - MALLEABLE - TRADITIONAL “Hardwired Model” - LEAST FLEXIBLE - GOAL – SHIFT FROM LATE HARDWARE TO EARLIER SOFTWARE SOLUTION RISK Embedded Systems More HW Than SW STOP Competing With HW START Competing With SW       Iterations,Integrations,&Validations
  26. 26.  SAFe rapidly evolving & adapting to market needs  A “draft” version was made for “systems engineering”  SoS, Lean, Kanban, and continuous flow system focus 26Leffingwell, D. (2014). Scaled agile framework (SAFe). Retrieved April 8, 2015 from http://www.scaledagileframework.com     Agile for SYSTEMS ENGINEERING SoS System Sub-Sys
  27. 27. 27 Kovacs, K. (2015). Comparison of nosql databases. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://kkovacs.eu Sahai, S. (2013). Nosql database comparison chart. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://www.infoivy.com DB-Engines (2014). System properties comparison of nosql databases. Retrieved on January 9, 2015, from http://db-engines.com    Rank Database Year Creator Firm Goal Model Lang I/F Focus Example User Rate KPro 2007 Steve Francia 10gen Gener- ality Document C++ BSON Large-scale Web Apps CRM Expedia 45% 48 2008 Avinash Lakshman Facebook Relia- bility Wide Column Java CQL Fault-tolerant Data Stores Mission Critical Data iTunes 20% 15 2009 Salvatore Sanfilippo Pivotal Speed Key Value C Binary Real-time Messaging Instant Messaging Twitter 20% 14 2007 Mike Carafella Powerset Scale Wide Column Java REST Petabyte-size Data Stores Image Repository Ebay 10% 8 2004 Shay Banon Compass Search Document Java REST Full-text Search Information Portals Wiki- media 5% 7 Real-time, Distributed, Multi-tenant, Document-based, Schema-free, Persistence, Availability, etc. 8 Redis10 HBase14 Rapid-prototyping, Queries, Indexes, Replication, Availability, Load-balancing, Auto-Sharding, etc. Distributed, Scalable, Performance, Durable, Caching, Operations, Transactions, Consistency Real-time, Memory-cached, Performance, Persistence, Replication, Data structures, Age-off, etc. Scalable, Performance, Data-replication, Flexible, Consistency, Auto-sharding, Metrics, etc. 16 Elastic Search MongoDB5 Cassandra 3 - $10M •Gen App •Reliable •Low Cplx 2 - $100M •Schema •Dist P2P •Med Cplx 1 - $1B •Limited •Sin PoF •High Cplx  Agile Scaling w/CLOUD COMPUTING  1st-generation systems used HPCs & Hadoop  2nd-generation systems used COTS HW & P2P  3rd-generation systems use APP. SW & COTS HW
  28. 28.  AWS is most popular cloud computing platform  Scalable service with end-to-end security & privacy  AWS is compliant & certified to 30+ indiv. S&P stds. 28 Barr, J. (2014). AWS achieves DoD provisional authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://aws.amazon.com Dignan, L. (2014). Amazon web services lands DoD security authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://www.zdnet.com Amazon.com (2015). AWS govcloud earns DoD CSM Levsl 3-5 provisional authorization. Retrieved January 12, 2015, from http://aws.amazon.com Analytics Database SSAE Cross Service Compute & Networking SOC Application Services Deployment & Management Storage & Content Del. DoD CSM DIACAP FedRAMP FIPSCOBIT CSAAICPA FISMAGLBAHITECH SAS ITAR ISO/IEC ISAE HIPAANIST MPAAPCI   NoSQL Sols • MongoDB • Cassandra • HBase  Agile Scaling w/AMAZON WEB SVCS
  29. 29.  Created by Jez Humble of ThoughtWorks in 2011  Includes CM, build, testing, integration, release, etc.  Goal is one-touch automation of deployment pipeline 29 Humble, J., & Farley, D. (2011). Continuous delivery. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Duvall, P., Matyas, S., & Glover, A. (2006). Continuous integration. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. Ohara, D. (2012). Continuous delivery and the world of devops. San Francisco, CA: GigaOM Pro.   CoQ • 80% MS Tst • 8/10 No Val • $24B in 90s • Rep by CD • Not Add MLK Agile Scaling w/CONTINUOUS DELIVERY
  30. 30.  Goal of continuous delivery is releases vs. build/tests  Market-driven releases creates rapid business value  Assembla went from 2 to 45 monthly releases w/CD 30Singleton, A. (2014). Unblock: A guide to the new continuous agile. Needham, MA: Assembla, Inc.  62x Faster U.S. DoD IT Project 3,645x Faster U.S. DoD IT Project  Agile Scaling at ASSEMBLA
  31. 31.  Google early adopter of agile methods and Scrum  Google also uses agile testing at enterprise scale  15,000 developers run 120 million tests per day 31 Micco, J. (2013). Continuous integration at google scale. Eclipse Con, Boston, MA. Whittaker, J., Arbon, J., & Carollo, J. (2012). How google tests software. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.  440 billion unique users run 37 trillion searches each year  Single monolithic code tree with mixed language code  Submissions at head – One branch – All from source  20+ code changes/minute – 50% code change/month  5,500+ submissions/day – 120 million tests per day  80,000 builds per day – 20 million builds per year  Auto code inspections – For low defect density  10X programming productivity improvement  $150 million in annual labor savings (ROI as a result)    Agile Scaling at GOOGLE
  32. 32.  Amazon adopted agile in 1999 and Scrum in 2004  Using enterprise-scale continuous delivery by 2010  30,000+ developers deploy over 8,600 releases a day 32 Atlas, A. (2009). Accidental adoption: The story of scrum at amazon.com. Proceedings of the Agile 2009 Conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 135-140. Jenkins, J. (2011). Velocity culture at amazon.com. Proceedings of the Velocity 2011 Conference, Santa Clara, California, USA. Elisha, S. (2013). Continuous deployment with amazon web services. Proceedings of the AWS Summit 2013, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.  Software deployment every 11.6 seconds (as of 2011)  24,828 to 86,320 releases per Iteration  161,379 to 561,080 releases per Quarter  645,517 to 2,244,320 releases per Year  Automatic, split-second roll-forward & backward  75-90% reduction in release-caused outages (0.001%)  Millions of times faster (than traditional methods)  4,357,241 to 15,149,160 per traditional release  Thousands of times faster (than manual agility)  161,379 to 561,080 per Scrum/SAFe release  Used agile methods long before U.S. government (1999)      Agile Scaling at AMAZON
  33. 33. Agile LEADERSHIP Models Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile coaching in high-conflict environments. Retrieved April 11, 2013 from http://davidfrico.com/agile-conflict-mgt.pdf Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile project management for virtual distributed teams. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com/rico13m.pdf Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile vs. traditional contract manifesto. Retrieved March 28, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com/agile-vs-trad-contract-manifesto.pdf 33 Personal Project Enterprise • Don't Be a Know-it-All • Be Open & Willing to Learn • Treat People Respectfully • Be Gracious, Humble, & Kind • Listen & Be Slow-to-Speak • Be Patient & Longsuffering • Be Objective & Dispassionate • Don't Micromanage & Direct • Exhibit Maturity & Composure • Don't Escalate or Exacerbate • Don't Gossip or be Negative • Delegate, Empower, & Trust • Gently Coach, Guide, & Lead • Customer Communication • Product Visioning • Distribution Strategy • Team Development • Standards & Practices • Telecom Infrastructure • Development Tools • High-Context Meetings • Coordination & Governance • F2F Communications • Consensus Based Decisions • Performance Management • Personal Development • Business Value vs. Scope • Interactions vs. Contracts • Relationship vs. Regulation • Conversation vs. Negotiation • Consensus vs. Dictatorship • Collaboration vs. Control • Openness vs. Adversarialism • Exploration vs. Planning • Incremental vs. All Inclusive • Entrepreneurial vs. Managerial • Creativity vs. Constraints • Satisfaction vs. Compliance • Quality vs. Quantity  Power & authority delegated to the lowest level  Tap into the creative nuclear power of team’s talent  Coaching, communication, and relationships key skills
  34. 34. Agile ORG. CHANGE Models Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York, NY: Random House. Patterson, K., et al. (2008). Influencer: The power to change anything: New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York, NY: Riverhead Books. Heath, C., & Heath, D. (2013). Decisive: How to make better choices in life and work. New York, NY: Random House.  Change, no matter how small or large, is difficult  Smaller focused changes help to cross the chasm  Shrinking, simplifying, and motivation key factors 34 SWITCH  Follow the bright spots  Script the critical moves  Point to the destination  Find the feeling  Shrink the change  Grow your people  Tweak the environment  Build habits  Rally the herd Direct the Rider Motivate the Elephant Shape the Path INFLUENCER  Create new experiences  Create new motives  Perfect complex skills  Build emotional skills  Recruit public personalities  Recruit influential leaders  Utilize teamwork  Enlist the power of social capital  Use incentives wisely  Use punishment sparingly  Make it easy  Make it unavoidable Make it Desirable Surpass your Limits Harness Peer Pressure Find Strength in Numbers Design Rewards Change Environment DRIVE Purpose Autonomy Mastery  Purpose and profit equality  Business and societal benefit  Share control of profits  Delegate implementation  Culture and goal alignment  Remake society and globe  Be accountable to someone  Self-selected work tasks  Self-directed work tasks  Self-selected timelines  Self-selected teams  Self-selected implementation  Experimentation and innovation  Align tasks to abilities  Continuously improve abilities  Elevate learning over profits  Create challenging tasks  Establish high expectations DECISIVE Villains of Good Decisions  Narrow framing  Confirmation bias  Short term emotion  Over confidence Widen Your Options  Avoid a narrow frame  Multi-track  Find someone who solved problem Reality Test Assumptions  Consider the opposite  Zoom out & zoom in  Ooch Attain Distance  Overcome short-term emotion  Gather more info & shift perspective  Self-directed work tasks Prepare to be Wrong  Bookend the future  Set a tripwire  Trust the process 
  35. 35. Agile ACQUISITION-CONTRACT Model Rico, D. F. (2011). The necessity of new contract models for agile project management. Fairfax, VA: Gantthead.Com. Rico, D. F. (2013). Agile vs. traditional contract manifesto. Retrieved March 28, 2013 from http://www.davidfrico.com 35 Dynamic Value Performance Based Target Cost Optional Scope Collaborative  Business & Mission Value OVER Scope, Processes, & Deliverables  Personal Interactions OVER Contract, Auditor, & Legal Interactions  Conversations and Consensus OVER Contract Negotiations & Control  Collaboration & Co-Dependency OVER Methodology & Adversarialism  Exploration, Evolution, & Emergence OVER Forecasting & Control  Early Continuous Quality Solutions OVER Late, Long-Term Deliveries  Entrepreneurialism & Openness OVER Compliance & Self-Interest  Customer Satisfaction and Quality OVER Policies & Governance  Communication, cooperation, and interaction key  Shared responsibility vs. blame and adversarialism  Needs greater focus on collaboration vs. legal terms
  36. 36. Key Agile SCALING POINTERS  One must think and act small to accomplish big things  Slow down to speed up, speed up ‘til wheels come off  Scaling up lowers productivity, quality, & business value 36 Rico, D. F. (2014). Dave's Notes: For Scaling with SAFe, DaD, LeSS, RAGE, ScrumPLoP, Enterprise Scrum, etc. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://davidfrico.com EMPOWER WORKFORCE - Allow workers to help establish enterprise business goals and objectives. ALIGN BUSINESS VALUE - Align and focus agile teams on delivering business value to the enterprise. PERFORM VISIONING - Frequently communicate portfolio, project, and team vision on continuous basis. REDUCE SIZE - Reduce sizes of agile portfolios, acquisitions, products, programs, projects, and teams. ACT SMALL - Get large agile teams to act, behave, collaborate, communicate, and perform like small ones. BE SMALL - Get small projects to act, behave, and collaborate like small ones instead of trying to act larger. ACT COLLOCATED - Get virtual distributed teams to act, behave, communicate and perform like collocated ones. USE SMALL ACQUISITION BATCHES - Organize suppliers to rapidly deliver new capabilities and quickly reprioritize. USE LEAN-AGILE CONTRACTS - Use collaborative contracts to share responsibility instead of adversarial legal ones. USE ENTERPRISE AUTOMATION - Automate everything with Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery, & DevOps.    

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