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Mitigating Global Warming Through Alternative Disposal of Used Mushroom Substrates

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Mitigating Global Warming Through Alternative Disposal of Used Mushroom Substrates
Case Study Session
Prof Etela Ibisime, RCE Port Harcourt
9th African Regional RCE Meeting
5-7 August, 2019, Luyengo, Eswatini

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Mitigating Global Warming Through Alternative Disposal of Used Mushroom Substrates

  1. 1. Mitigating Global Warming Through Alternative Disposal of Used Mushroom Substrates by I. Etela 1 , J.N. Ingweye 2 and O. Akaranta 3 (RCE Port Harcourt) www.rceportharcourt.org; info@rceportharcourt.org Participating Organisations: 1 Institute of Agricultural Research and Development, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria ibisime.etela@uniport.edu.ng 2 Foundation for Agric and Social Transformation, Port Harcourt, Nigeria jiningweye@gmail.com, info@fastng.org 3 Science Institute, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria onyewuchi.akaranta@uniport.edu.ng Paper presented at the 9th African RCE Meeting on “Accelerating Progress Towards the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals in Africa” held at Luyengo, Estiwani from 5th-7th August 2019
  2. 2. Presentation Outline • Overview of RCE Port Harcourt • Introduction • Project Goal and Objectives • Project Area and People • Conceptual Framework • Methodology • Results • Major Findings • Key Next Steps • Acknowledgements ∼ ∼2
  3. 3. RCE Port Harcourt (3 Core Projects) Ecosystem Conservation and Restoration for Sustainable Poverty Reduction and Human Capital Development Green Science Education - Science on Wheels Flagship Project • Economic empowerment (capacity building / skills transfer) • Waste-to-wealth • Bioremediation of degraded environment due to mineral exploration & exploitation (solid & liquid minerals) • Greening environment for mitigating climate change • Capacity building of science teachers (train-the-trainers) • Encourage science teaching & learning at primary & secondary schools ∼ ∼3
  4. 4. Introduction • Increased awareness about the nutritional value of mushroom is leading to more production and consumption in Nigeria • Different agricultural wastes used as substrates for cultivating mushrooms in Nigeria • Resulting to large tons of spent mushroom substrates produced • Spent substrates either left unused leading to greenhouse gas emission during decay or partly as mulch for cropping • Project focused on converting spent mushroom substrates to farm animal feed (Belewu & Belewu, 2005; Kinfemi et al., 2009; Etela et al., 2018) ∼ ∼4
  5. 5. Photos of a complete mushroom (a) and spent mushroom substrates (b-e) Plate bPlate a Plate c Plate d Plate e ∼ ∼5
  6. 6. Project Goal and Objectives Goal To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate global warming Objectives • To determine chemical composition of used substrates from three mushroom species • To estimate methane gas production from the used mushroom substates from three species • To evaluate in vitro dry matter digestibility of three mushroom species grown on sawdust ∼ ∼6
  7. 7. Project Area and People • Choba Community in Niger Delta, south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria • Oil and gas hub in Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea • Inhabitants fisherfolks and farmers livelihoods threatened by non-farm businesses (social; economic; environmental) • Motivated to make agriculture more responsive to global 17 SDGs ∼ ∼7
  8. 8. Conceptual Framework • Edible mushrooms are fungus capable of degrading cell wall making them more digestible (Pleurotus tuber-regium; Pleurotus ostreatus; Volvariella volvacea) • Animal welfare: conscious of the 3Rs (Reduction; Refinement; Replacement) • Duration: March 2014-October 2018 • Spent mushroom substrates obtained from Mushroom Unit, Demonstration Farm, University of Port Harcourt and Bazaleel Mushroom Farm, Rivers State ∼ ∼8
  9. 9. Methodology • Samples from three spent mushroom substrates (SMS) dried 60ºC for 72 hours • Chemical composition determined on the three SMS (AOAC, 2002) • In vitro gas production technique was used (Menke and Steingass, 1988) • Estimated total and methane gas production, and dry matter digestibility • Data obtained were analysed using statistical software (SAS, 2002). • Results presented in tables and charts ∼ ∼9
  10. 10. Table 1. Chemical composition (g/100g DM) of spent sawdust and cotton substrates from three mushroom species Results Spent Mushroom Substrate Dry matter Organic matter Crude protein Neutral detergent fibre Pleurotus tuber-regium on sawdust 70.6c 98.2b 14.9a 67.0b Pleurotus oestratus on sawdust 74.4b 96.8a 5.3b 84.5a Volvariella volvacea on cotton waste 87.4a 97.3ab 88.8b 84.3a Mean 77.5 97.4 9.6 78.6 s.e (df = 3) 0.98 0.31 2.65 8.50 ∼ ∼10
  11. 11. Table 2. Gas production rate and in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of spent sawdust and cotton substrates from three mushroom species Results (cont’d) Spent Mushroom Substrate Gas production (L/h/ton) In vitro DM Digestibility (g/100 gDM) Pleurotus tuber-regium on sawdust 0.48 90.1 Pleurotus oestratus on sawdust 0.27 96.5 Volvariella volvacea on cotton waste 0.87 97.3 Mean ± s.e (df = 3) 0.55 ± 0.110 90.0 ± 12.93 ∼ ∼11
  12. 12. Figure 1. In vitro gas production ((mL/200mg)) by spent sawdust and cotton waste substrates from three mushroom species 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 3 h 6 h 9 h 12 h 15 h 18 h 21 h 24 h Pleurotus tuber-regium on sawdust Volvariella volvacea on cotton waste Pleurotus oestratus on sawdust Results (cont’d) ∼ ∼12
  13. 13. Figure 2. Methane gas output (mL/200mg) by spent sawdust and cotton substrates from three mushroom species Results (cont’d) 0.0 3.0 6.0 9.0 Pleurotus tuber-regium on sawdust Pleurotus oestratus on sawdust Volvariella volvacea on cotton waste 6.5 2.0 3.0 ∼ ∼13
  14. 14. Major Findings • Edible mushrooms are fungus capable of degrading cell wall making them more digestible as animal feed • Spent mushroom substrates could be converted to beneficial products like meat without causing environmental nuisance when left to open-air decay • Mushroom species differ in level of fibre utilisation and methane (greenhouse) gas emission • Pleurotus ostreatus species on sawdust appear most suitable for use to minimise methane emission • Contributes to SDG 13 (Climate Change) and SDG 15 (Life on Land) ∼ ∼14
  15. 15. Next Key Steps • Conduct on-farm studies using action research with farmers as key researchers • Working with farmers to identify locally used plants with anti-methanogenic properties as feed supplements • Promote use of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom species cultivated on sawdust in the project area • Reached out to about 100 direct target farmers • Enlighten about 15,000 indirect target beneficiaries via formal (published) and non-formal channels (person-to- person contacts) ∼ ∼15
  16. 16. Acknowledgements The authors, sincerely, appreciate the: • United Nations University - Institute for the Advanced Study of Sustainability (UNU-IAS) for funding the trip to attend the conference and present the paper • The Local Organising Committee, RCE Eswatini, Kingdom of Eswatini for accepting the paper for presentation at the 9th African RCE Meeting ∼ ∼16
  17. 17. Thank you, for listening ∼ ∼17

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