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  1. 1. MANTHAN TOPIC: “Towards cleaner india:Providing clean drinking water and proper sanitation facility to all “ OBJECTIVE : “ Providing innovative solutions for safe drinking water and proper sanitation"
  3. 3. Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate MAIN CHARACTERISTICS: India has 16 per cent of the world’s population and four per cent of its fresh water resources.  Depleting ground water table and deteriorating ground water quality are threatening the sustainability of both urban and rural water supply in many parts of India. The supply of cities that depend on surface water is threatened by pollution, increasing water scarcity and conflicts among users As in other Indian cities, the response to water scarcity is to transfer more water over large distances at high costs. This Challenge Paper focuses on sanitation, as the world has met the water Millennium Development Goal, but will likely miss the sanitation target Drinking water supply and sanitation in India continue to be inadequate, despite longstanding efforts by the various levels of government and communities at improving coverage  None of the 35 Indian cities with a population of more than one million distribute water for more than a few hours per day, despite generally sufficient infrastructure. The lack of adequate sanitation and safe water has significant negative health impacts including diarrhoea Depleting ground water table and deteriorating ground water quality are threatening the sustainability of both urban and rural water supply in many parts of India. The supply of cities that depend on surface water is threatened by pollution, increasing water scarcity and conflicts among users.
  4. 4. Scope of problem,causes and effects: An astonishing one‐third of the indian population, 60% people, does not have access to basic sanit ation and over 20% people defecate out in the open. In light of the evidence that the world commun ity is making progress in thewater sector, and because sanitation is typically the neglected half of the water and sanitation chanllenge Large public sector investments to provide clean water and sewerage were jointly responsible for most of the rapid decline in the child mortality rate in the early 20th century And yet, the continued burden of unsafe and inadequate sanitation is easy to identify. Inadequate ,sanitation caused a cholera outbreak in Haiti in late 2010 that has now made half a million people si ck and cost some 7,000 lives in rural ares due to unsafe drinking water and lack of proper sanitation Diarrheal diseases are still a leading cause of death for children under five, second only to respirat ory infections  The burden extends beyond health The sanitation that serves those households not in the sewered core is not networked; I t is on‐site ,sanitation, i.e., latrines or septic tanks, an investment for which the owner of the house bears primary ,responsibility.  In high density, low‐income urban areas, where one or more families share a single room, finding space for a latrine is problematic and constructing a new latrine when an exis- ting one fills is ,usually out of the question Poor water quality spread diseses causes death and hampers socio economis progress Around,5 million people die due to water born diseases Water related diseses put an economic burden both on house hold and nations economy
  5. 5. CAUSE AND EFFECT CHAIN OUTPUT LEVEL: Rehabilitation and building of drinking water systems Increased affordability of safe water for the population POVERTY REDUCTION Increased access to safe water Reduced rate of water related diseases Improved Health and social development Missing Middle Time
  6. 6. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS The benefits of sanitation as a public health solution seem self‐evident. Quotations like thi s one from a recent Lancet (2008) editorial are easy to find: “It is already well known that i mproved sanitation could prevent 1∙5 million deaths from diarrheal illnesses a year, enhanc es dignity, privacy, and safety, especially for women and girls, benefits the economy every rupee spent on sanitation generates economic benefits worth around nine more— and is better for the environment.”  Under those conditions latrines have to be emptied and the fecal sludge, has to be transp orted to a place where it can be dumped safely if health benefits of sanitation are to be ,rea lized Basic sanitation is the simplest form of sanitation, usually just a latrine that meets the mi nimum requirements to contain pathogens (such as a latrine cover to keep out flies), but oft en not pleasant to use In low density rural areas, households are expected to have enough space to construct a b asic latrine on their plot, at an adequate distance away from their living space and from the ir water source,and to rebuild a new latrine if the old one fills up decentralised, autonomous and financially self-sustaining provision of water supply and sanitation services; Smell and flies are key barriers to satisfaction with basic sanitation. There are many latrin e designs that ,attempt to reduce smell and prevent flies from spreading disease through fo rms of ventilation and ,systems of double vaults or pits, allowing the waste in one pit to dec ompose while the other fills up. The conventional solution, the gold standard, and for many governments still the only acc eptable long‐term solution to the sanitation challenge, is the flush toilet. A toilet is a water closet that is linked to a sewer network that transports human waste diluted in a large volu me of clean water to a wastewater treatment plant where it takes considerable energy to re move the waste from that water. Using large volumes of water treated to drinking water qu ality to flush excrement down expensive pipes in order to ,spend more money to try to clean that water up again is not necessarily a smart idea anywhere.
  7. 7. Particularly in areas with multi‐level apartment blocks these systems may have an advantage over ,latrines but the y have not been widely ad opted. A challenge for a future paper might be to estimate,carefully the potential market for this approach, barriers t o adoption, and potential net benefits. In urban areas where latrine and septic tanks have to be emptied, and the fecal sludge has to be disposed off safel y, its management is a challenge associated with on‐site or non‐sewered sanitation. In locations where there is a relatively active market for mechanized latrine emptying with vacuum trucks fecal slu dge that is dumped safely is generally kept in large drying beds and left to decompose for at least six months Certainly, new solutions for fecal sludge management, whether it is technology or business and regulatory models ,t hat end such unsafe disposal, are required if hundreds of millions of people are going to be served by ,non‐networke d solutions and realize the gains of safe sanitation integrated water resources management taking environmental impacts into account recognition of water as an economic as well as a social good; more beneficiary participation; and a greater focus on capacity building SUPPORTING AWARNESS DRIVES: one of the major challenge is to make people aware on the need to consume safe drinking water..the government needs to support civil society and organization involved in increasing integrated campaign will result in wide spread information dissemination amongst the masses on the ways and means of preventing contamination of water resources TESTING AND REMEDIAL ACTION: there is an urgent need to enhance the moniterning network by establishing monetaring sections acress all regions and seasonal assessments of all water case of contamination being detected an action plan for dealing with sources should be provided.the challenge lies in establishing well equipped laboratories with well trained staff CAPACITY BUILDING OF COMMUNITIES: the roles of panchayats are becoming more impotant and stress is being laid on community based approaches in dealing with water related problems . a prerequisite for increasing community participaton is training of people from the communities so that they are able to make well informed decessions UNITE AGENCY COORDINATION: one major bottle neck in an effective policy formulation and implementation has been the current institutional setup involving various government agencies.there is a frangmented approach at the state and central level with the involvement of numerous agencies in the supply and management of water . better coordination among the minister s and departments would ensure effective implementation MAKING SERVICE PROVIDER ACCOUNTABLE: article 21 of the constitution of india relates to the protection of life and personal liberty and the right to pollute- free water is guaranteed under this provision . the user has right to know whether water being provided at source is free from any contamination as claimed by authorities.finanacila expenditure on water supply schemes testing water
  8. 8. AWARNESS: The users should be made aware of the importance of preventing contamination of water and also of the importance of clean and healthy surroundings near water sources.effective IEC campaigns by civil society will play a important role in spreading has to keep in mind that such campaigns should be based on local needs and problems and use tools that are easily understandable by the people ACCOUNTABILITY: Users should alse realize their individual responsilbilty in maintaining the quality of water supplied to them.cultural and behavior practices like open defecation bathing of cattle results in contamination of water resources ,the responsibility of maintaining the safety of water provided also reset with the users COMMUNITY BASED WATER QUALITY MONITERING: Many water quality problems are caused due to communities being unaware of the different aspects of managing and maintaining the quality of water resourses.raising their awareness of appropriate practice will help them realize the grim realities of depleting water asouces and at the same time help in engaging thme in monitoring and maintainence. Creating a demand for safe sanitation services: It can be done through social marketing of sanitation and behavior change in communication for rural sanitation. Meeting the demand for safe sanitation services: Once the demand has been created, ensuring delivery of these services through capacity building of mission and providing a wide range of suitable sanitation technologies INNOVATIVE STRATEGIES FOR PROPER SANITATION This presentation proposes three novel sanitation solutions such as: 1.Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS++): Various forms of an approach that emphasizes behavior change, particularly the community’s responsibility to share in the creation of open defecation free communities, particularly in rural areas; 2.Sanitation as a Business: New approaches to on‐site sanitation that combine technical innovation to empty latrines and process waste with innovative busin ess or service models to create sustainable sanitation services, particularly in low‐income urban areas; 3.The Reinvented Toilet: Efforts to stimulate technical innovation, particularly harnessing advances in physics, chemistry, and engineering, to create a radica lly reinvented toilet that recycles human waste into reusable products at the household scale. ………………………………………
  9. 9. “ We believe the innovation required is achievable and that there is credible evidence that the fraction of roll‐out costs to achieve adoption that would need to be borne by the public sector is sufficiently small as to make such an investment feasible and attractive “ Programme aims and objectives  Develop preliminary marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, Promotion) Product identification and development  Identify and develop marketable sanitation facilities & services (e.g. latrine technologies /options, latrine information service, latrine centre) Set up supply mechanism  Identify potential suppliers of latrines & other related services  Assess and develop their capacity to provide desired services  Identify and/or set place(s) where consumers can access the sanitation services being marketed (eg toilet centres)  Work with the public sector to establish strategy for disposal of sludge from toilets Message and material development  Identify partners with expertise for the design and development of marketing concepts  Develop marketing concepts and creative design  Pre-test and refine creative design  Develop promotion strategy Implement promotion campaign  Produce promotion materials (e.g. posters, flyers, radio jingle, billboard)  Launch a campaign (e.g. road show, launch event)  Run a promotion campaign for about 3 months Monitor and feedback  Monitor the programme (spread/ response to the campaign, quality of services provided etc)  Feedback and modify the programme as appropriate
  10. 10. Good Governance and Broad Participation
  11. 11. IMPACT OF SOLUTION Rural water interventions, which we consider briefly (as water was covered extensively in the previous Copenhagen Consensus round), hav e similar modest pay‐offs. In the case of urban sanitation, the theoretical benefits of basic onsite sanitation will not be achieved unless specif ic innovations are put in place investments in technological and institutional innovations to reduce the cost and increase the effectiveness of sanitation services to empty and treat human waste collected in latrines and septic tanks would have a very large pay‐off Why has the sanitation challenge proved so elusive for many countries? The simplest answer is the cost of current technologies. For about t wo hundred years the water closet – the flush toilet with its smell‐limiting water seal that brought the “outhouse” indoors – and the associated sewer networks have been the technology of choice for all who can afford it Faced with such costs and the potential to decouple water and sanitation services, many governments and households have prioritized wat er over sanitation Why does sanitation lag so far behind water? There is a strong a priori case to suspect significant disease externalities and intra‐family distri butional inequities that would lead to inefficiently low private investment. Standard public finance arguments would thus support public con tributions to sanitation Conventional waste water treatment plants are not only expensive to construct, but costly to operate ,because of their high energy require ments
  12. 12. The Global Intervention Logic Environment Institutional Reform Infrastructure (construction / maintenance) Improved Health Reduced vulnerability of Ecosystem to climatic events Poverty Reduction Sustainable National Water Supply Increased Access to Basic Sanitation Strong Link Link Improved Conservation & Preservation of Water Social Development Greater Equity in Allocation of Water & Sanitation Improved Quality of Water & Sanitation GLOBAL IMPACTSINTERMEDIATE IMPACTS SPECIFIC IMPACTSRESULTS/ OUTCOMES OUTPUT CLUSTERS Increased Affordability of Water & Sanitation Increased Access to Water Economic Growth Economic Improved Use of Water & Sanitation Increased Employment Effects Improved Conditions for Economic Growth Reduced Rate of Water Related Diseases
  13. 13. REFERENCES: b Greenhalgh, Alison (March 2001). "Healthy living - Water". BBC Health. Retrieved 2007-02-19. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dallas, TX (2000-05)."Chapter 3: Exposure Scenario Selection". Retrieved 2007-02- 19. RCRA Delisting Technical Support Document. p. 8. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Washington, DC (EPA/600/R-09/052F)."Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition". Retrieved 2012-09-06. ^ "The Benefits of Water". Cleveland Clinic. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-02-19. ^ Research debunks health value of guzzling water. Reuters, April 2008. ^ a b H. Valtin, Drink at least eight glasses of water a day." Really? Is there scientific evidence for "8 × 8"? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R993-R1004, 2002. ^ Negoianu, Dan; Goldfarb, Stanley (2008). "Just add water" (PDF). J. Am. Soc. Nephrol 19 (6): 1041– 1043. doi:10.1681/ASN.2008030274. PMID 18385417. ^ "US daily reference intake values". Retrieved 2011-12-05. ^ Maton, Anthea bj; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. ^ World Health Organization (WHO). Geneva, Switzerland. Joyce Morrissey Donohue, Charles O. Abernathy, Peter Lassovszky, George Hallberg. "The contribution of drinking-water to total dietary intakes of selected trace mineral nutrients in the United States." Draft, August 2004. "Where we work". WaterAid. 2011-10-26. Retrieved 2011-12-05. ^ "water and sanitation for all - International site". WaterAid. 2011-11-30. Retrieved 2011-12-05. ^ World Health Organization. Global Framework for Action on Sanitation and Water Supply (2009-07-21). "Frequently Asked Questions." Working document. ^ a b Pearce, Fred (2006). When the Rivers Run Dry: Journeys Into the Heart of the World's Water Crisis. Toronto: Key Porter. ISBN 978-1- 55263-741-8.
  14. 14.    Http://          congo_20321       300-gram-panchayats-in-next-2-years/     