Cell
Basic unit for living beings

Bounded by a plasma membrane. Also presents cytoplasm.
In eukaryotic cells one or two n...
Cell
Structure and function

Author: M. en C. Gerardo García
Based on Curtis y Barnes. (1997). Biología. Interamericana,
A...
Cell
So many shapes and sizes
•Average Cell: between 5 to 50 micrometers
•Smallest bacterias are about 0.2 micrometers
•Th...
Didactics
Plant
cell

Natural
Autotroph

Classifications
gr. autos, by itself
+ gr. trophos, food related

Heterotroph

gr...
Different cell
examples
Red Blood Cells
Protozoos
Protozoos
BACTERIAS
Rod-shaped, round, & spiral
Cells that lead
liquid in plants
cyanobacteria
cyanobacteria
Paramecium
& Didinium
(protozoos)
Autotrophic protozoo
(it has chloroplasts)
Prokaryotic
Bacteria
Embyo Development
Fungus cells
Immune
System
Cells
Immune
System
Cells
Nervous System Cells
Colonies. Associated
cells, but still not
consider a tissue
Bone cells
Ribosomes

Golgi
apparatus

Nucleolus

Animal Cell (heterotroph)
Nuclear envelope

Cytoskeleton

Plasma Membrane
Centriole...
Cytoskeleton
Cromatin

(Microtubule)

Nuclear envelope

(heterotroph)

Nucleolus
Cytoplasm

Mitochondrion

Cilia and
Flage...
Plant Cell
(autotroph)
Cell Wall
Plasma Membrane
Nucleus

Nucleolus
Mitochondrion

Vacuole

Starch grain
Chloroplast
membranous organelles

Mitochondrion
Made of two membrane
the inner is highly folded
(folds and ridges)
Outer Membrane

Pe...
membranous organelles

Group of membranes
forming channels and ducts Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Ribosomes

Protein synthe...
Non-Membranous Organelles

Nucleic Acids in the nucleus can be in two
conditions

Chromatin

Chromosome
Non- membranous organelles

Chormosome Structure

DNA
Chromosome 12

Non-Membranous Organelles

Heterochromosomes X y Y
Non-membrabous Organelles

“Super-Rolled” or
“super-condensed”
condition of DNA
occurs during cell
division or cell
reprod...
Membranous Organelles

Flattened stack bags of membrane
Forming vesicles and cisterns
Membranous Organelles

Modifies proteins and package them for distribution
outside the cell.
Also mantains and restores th...
Membranous Organelles

Lysosomes

Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes for
the breakdown of excess or worn-out
cellular...
Non-Membranous Organelles

Nucleolus

Grains made of protein
fibers and cromatin
Site of ribosome production

Back
Nucleus

Membranous Organelles

Membrane with pores,
called nuclear envelope,
contains chromatin (DNA
free chains) and the...
Membranous Organelles

Plasma
Membrane

Phospholipid bilayer,
that has protein and
carbohydrate
embedded in a fluid
mosaic
Membranous Organelles

Bounds the cell, and
regulates the
exchange of materials
between the inside
and the outside
Back
Non-Membranous Organelles

Small cylinders, set in 9 groups of 3
(triplets), made of protein microtubules

Centrioles
Non-Membranous Organelles
Non-Membranous Organelles

Centrioles are the anchor site for mitotic spindle
Only found in animal cells and a
some protis...
Non- Membranous Organelles

Small bodies made of protein and RNAr,
arranged in two subunits

Subunit
p
Subunit
s

In the r...
Non-Membranous Organelles

Thick, rigid, mesh of fibers that
sorrounds the outside of the
plasma membrane, protectinc the
...
Membranous Organelles

A double-membrane organelle. The inner membrane forms
many small disk-shaped compartments called th...
Membranous Organelles

Captures light energy and
converts it into chemical
energy (carbohydrats)
through a process called
...
Membranous Organelles

A membrane-bound vesicle
regular to big size

Vacuole
For the temporary storage of materials

Back
Non-Membranous Organelles

Cytoskeleton
Non-Membranous Organelles

Cytoskeleton

A framework fir the cell within
the cytoplasm
Long hollow microtubes
of protein a...
Non-Membranous Organelles

Cilia & Flagella

Back
Cell
Cell
Cell
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Cell

  1. 1. Cell Basic unit for living beings Bounded by a plasma membrane. Also presents cytoplasm. In eukaryotic cells one or two nucleous can be found In most of the plants, mushrooms and bacteria there is a cell wall outside of the plasma membrane Cell Theory states the cell as the basic structural and fuctional unit of all living organisms, and also for origin
  2. 2. Cell Structure and function Author: M. en C. Gerardo García Based on Curtis y Barnes. (1997). Biología. Interamericana, Alexander. (1992). Biología. Prentice-Hall and Biology (2009) Glencoe
  3. 3. Cell So many shapes and sizes •Average Cell: between 5 to 50 micrometers •Smallest bacterias are about 0.2 micrometers •The giant Amoeba Chaos chaos: up to 1000 micrometers. (it looks like a tiny drop)
  4. 4. Didactics Plant cell Natural Autotroph Classifications gr. autos, by itself + gr. trophos, food related Heterotroph gr. heteros, another, different + gr. trophos, food related Prokaryotic lat. pro, before + gr. karyon, core, nucleus Eukaryotic gr. eu, true + gr. karyon, core, nucleus in eukaryotes the cell structure comprises various organelles gr. organon, structure, tool + gr. ella, small Animal cell
  5. 5. Different cell examples
  6. 6. Red Blood Cells
  7. 7. Protozoos
  8. 8. Protozoos
  9. 9. BACTERIAS Rod-shaped, round, & spiral
  10. 10. Cells that lead liquid in plants
  11. 11. cyanobacteria
  12. 12. cyanobacteria
  13. 13. Paramecium & Didinium (protozoos)
  14. 14. Autotrophic protozoo (it has chloroplasts)
  15. 15. Prokaryotic Bacteria
  16. 16. Embyo Development
  17. 17. Fungus cells
  18. 18. Immune System Cells
  19. 19. Immune System Cells
  20. 20. Nervous System Cells
  21. 21. Colonies. Associated cells, but still not consider a tissue
  22. 22. Bone cells
  23. 23. Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Nucleolus Animal Cell (heterotroph) Nuclear envelope Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane Centriole Cilia and Flagelum Cromatin Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosomes Mitochondrion Cytoplasm Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
  24. 24. Cytoskeleton Cromatin (Microtubule) Nuclear envelope (heterotroph) Nucleolus Cytoplasm Mitochondrion Cilia and Flagelum Vacuole Vesicle Centriole Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosomes Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi apparatus Plasma Membrane Ribosomes
  25. 25. Plant Cell (autotroph) Cell Wall Plasma Membrane Nucleus Nucleolus Mitochondrion Vacuole Starch grain Chloroplast
  26. 26. membranous organelles Mitochondrion Made of two membrane the inner is highly folded (folds and ridges) Outer Membrane Performs the cellular respiration (Extract energy from the Food) Inner Membrane Mitochondrion ridges Back
  27. 27. membranous organelles Group of membranes forming channels and ducts Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Protein synthesis (in the ribosomes) connects the cell for inner transport of materials Back
  28. 28. Non-Membranous Organelles Nucleic Acids in the nucleus can be in two conditions Chromatin Chromosome
  29. 29. Non- membranous organelles Chormosome Structure DNA
  30. 30. Chromosome 12 Non-Membranous Organelles Heterochromosomes X y Y
  31. 31. Non-membrabous Organelles “Super-Rolled” or “super-condensed” condition of DNA occurs during cell division or cell reproduction back
  32. 32. Membranous Organelles Flattened stack bags of membrane Forming vesicles and cisterns
  33. 33. Membranous Organelles Modifies proteins and package them for distribution outside the cell. Also mantains and restores the plasma membrane Back
  34. 34. Membranous Organelles Lysosomes Vesicles that contain digestive enzymes for the breakdown of excess or worn-out cellular substances Digest and decompose any macromolecule Back
  35. 35. Non-Membranous Organelles Nucleolus Grains made of protein fibers and cromatin Site of ribosome production Back
  36. 36. Nucleus Membranous Organelles Membrane with pores, called nuclear envelope, contains chromatin (DNA free chains) and the Nucleolus Control center for the Cell. Contains coded directions for protein synthesis and cell division Nuclear pores Back
  37. 37. Membranous Organelles Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bilayer, that has protein and carbohydrate embedded in a fluid mosaic
  38. 38. Membranous Organelles Bounds the cell, and regulates the exchange of materials between the inside and the outside
  39. 39. Back
  40. 40. Non-Membranous Organelles Small cylinders, set in 9 groups of 3 (triplets), made of protein microtubules Centrioles
  41. 41. Non-Membranous Organelles
  42. 42. Non-Membranous Organelles Centrioles are the anchor site for mitotic spindle Only found in animal cells and a some protist cells (heterotrophs) Back
  43. 43. Non- Membranous Organelles Small bodies made of protein and RNAr, arranged in two subunits Subunit p Subunit s In the ribosomes takes place the synthesis or construction of proteins Back
  44. 44. Non-Membranous Organelles Thick, rigid, mesh of fibers that sorrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, protectinc the cell and givin it support. Cell wall is made of a carbohydrate polymer called cellulose. Back
  45. 45. Membranous Organelles A double-membrane organelle. The inner membrane forms many small disk-shaped compartments called thylakoids, containig chlorophyll Chloroplasts
  46. 46. Membranous Organelles Captures light energy and converts it into chemical energy (carbohydrats) through a process called photosynthesis Back
  47. 47. Membranous Organelles A membrane-bound vesicle regular to big size Vacuole For the temporary storage of materials Back
  48. 48. Non-Membranous Organelles Cytoskeleton
  49. 49. Non-Membranous Organelles Cytoskeleton A framework fir the cell within the cytoplasm Long hollow microtubes of protein and protein strands They operate as "Rails" in the transport vesicles gives a definite but elastic form the cell Back
  50. 50. Non-Membranous Organelles Cilia & Flagella Back

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