Cell organelles


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  • Use this presentation in conjunction with the Cell Organelle note-taking worksheet.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • Cells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • AKA Golgi Complex
  • The image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
  • Chloroplasts absorb light, which is the starts the process of photosynthesis.
  • Actin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
  • Microtubules are also part of the cytoskeleton.
  • Cell organelles

    1. 1. Cell Organelles
    2. 2. Cell Organelles <ul><li>Organelle (“little organ”) = a small structure in the cell that performs a specific function. </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane-bound organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells </li></ul>
    3. 3. Cytoplasm <ul><li>Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, gelatin-like, watery substance surrounding the organelles. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains the shape and consistency of the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for chemical reactions necessary in metabolism </li></ul>
    4. 4. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Boundary of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Made of a phospho lipid bi layer, with protein molecules scattered all over </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates what comes in and out of the cell, provides for some protection of the cell and its organelles </li></ul>
    5. 5. Nucleus <ul><li>Control center of the cell – has the information needed to oversee the chemical reactions in cells (what is the counterpart in a factory?) </li></ul><ul><li>Contains DNA (either as chromosomes or chromatin), nucleolus and nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded by a double membrane called nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Usually the easiest structure to see under a microscope </li></ul><ul><li>Usually one per cell, but some cells have many nuclei </li></ul>
    6. 6. Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>Boundary of the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>“ Envelope” – because it a a double-membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Made of a phospho lipid bi layer (like the cell membrane) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates what comes in and out of the nucleus, has nuclear pores that allow a large molecule like RNA to move in and out of the nucleus. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Chromosome/ Chromatin <ul><li>Eukaryotic DNA has 2 forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromatin - DNA that is loosely coiled around a protein. When the cell in NOT dividing, DNA is in this form but cannot be seen in most light microscopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosome - chromatin is condensed into chromosomes when the cell divides (mitosis/ meiosis). Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes which contain all of your DNA. These are visible in a light microscope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the genetic code that directs what proteins get made </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Nucleolus <ul><li>A large, dense area in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Site of ribosome production </li></ul>nucleolus
    9. 9. Ribosome <ul><li>Site of protein synthesis (also known as translation) </li></ul><ul><li>Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Not membrane-bound </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus </li></ul>
    10. 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>A.k.a. “E.R.” ( endo means inside + cyto plasmic + reticulum means network = network of membranes inside the cytoplasm) </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to nuclear envelope </li></ul><ul><li>Rough ER : studded with ribosomes; it chemically modifies proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth ER : no ribosomes; it makes lipids </li></ul>
    11. 11. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>Looks like a stack of plates; membrane-bound </li></ul><ul><li>Stores, transports, and packages proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules transported to and from the Golgi by means of vesicles </li></ul>
    12. 12. Lysosomes <ul><li>Garbage disposal of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane-bound </li></ul><ul><li>Contain digestive enzymes that break down big molecules and damaged organelles </li></ul>Which organelles do lysosomes work with?
    13. 13. Vacuoles <ul><li>Large central vacuole usually in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Storage container for water, food, enzymes , wastes, pigments, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Membrane-bound </li></ul>What type of microscope may have been used to take this picture?
    14. 14. Mitochondria <ul><li>“ Powerhouse of the cell” – found in BOTH plant and animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy (ATP) for the cell to use </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 membranes – outer and inner membranes (the latter is highly folded that increases surface area for cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Has its own circular DNA and ribosomes (wonder why?) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Chloroplast <ul><li>Found only in plant cells and plant-like protists </li></ul><ul><li>Site of photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Bounded by a double membrane – third membrane is “photosynthetic” - contains the green pigment chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Contains its own DNA and ribosomes (why?) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Acts as skeleton and muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Provides shape and structure </li></ul><ul><li>Helps move organelles around the cell, or move the cell itself </li></ul><ul><li>Made of three types of filaments </li></ul><ul><li>Only in eukaryotes </li></ul>
    17. 17. Centrioles <ul><li>During cell division – help assemble the spindle apparatus that moves chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Usually found only in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Made of microtubules arranged in a special way </li></ul>
    18. 18. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>Made of microtubules arranged in a special way (similar to centrioles) </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions of (some) eukaryotic cells that have no cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>For movement </li></ul>Cilia in throat cells Cilia in Paramecium Cilia in sperm cells
    19. 19. Cell Wall <ul><li>Found in plant, fungus , and bacterial cells </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid, protective barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Located outside of the cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Made of cellulose ( fiber ) in plant cells </li></ul>
    20. 20. Quick Review <ul><li>Which organelle is the control center of the cell? </li></ul><ul><li>Which organelle is responsible for converting food energy into usable energy and is present in ALL eukaryotic cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Which organelles are not found in animal cells? </li></ul><ul><li>Which organelle helps plant cells make food? </li></ul><ul><li>What does E.R. stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>Which organelles have something to do with making and packaging proteins? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are almost all organelles membrane-bound? </li></ul>
    21. 21. Identify the organelles