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www.fullertonengineering.com
Engineer Training Series – Monopole Towers
(1) Monopole
(2) Self Supporter
(3) Guyed Tower
The following information is presented in a 3 part series that
cover the Parts, Foundations, Erection, and Maintenance
efforts for each of the following structure types:
Fred Teichman 03/2014
Part 1
Objective: Understand, Confirm, and Explore ... Past and Most Common
www.fullertonengineering.com
Part One – Monopole Typical Use
Purpose, Space, Capacity & Location
Great for Urban areas and Most Aesthetically pleasing
www.fullertonengineering.com
Part One – Why use a Monopole?
Monopoles
Strength, reliability and adaptability. The tapered, slip-fitted design is the
most common and the least offensive visually for today's strict zoning and
permit requirements.
With a footprint of less than 50 square feet, monopoles are perfect for
small sites.
Other distinguishing advantages include:
• Easy assembly
• Less expensive installation
• Interior routing of cables which reduces wind loading
• Can be designed for multiple carriers plus microwave capability
• Platforms and antenna arrays can be rotated to any azimuth
www.fullertonengineering.com
Part One – What & How ... Monopoles
Monopoles
65% of the photos used in this material are from actual projects and referenced by customer & site.
Project drawings and costs information is available upon request. FredTeichmanHTH@gmail.com
• Typical Parts & Pieces
(Structure & Accessories)
• Manufactures
• Foundations
• Assembly and Erection
• Installation & Maintenance
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Typical Parts
Vertical Shaft
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – 2 typical designs - Tapered or Stepped
The Shaft - Continuous Tapered and Stepped pipe
monopoles in a variety of sizes and configurations
Stepped Pipe - where
the sections reduce in
size
Tapered monopoles are designed as
12, 16, or 18-sided and to various
heights
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Typical Parts
The Connection
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole 2 Types Connections – Sleeved or Flanged
Slip Sleeve Tapered
Pole with Low
Profile platform
Flanged Pipe Poles
Flanged pipe poles can be Internally or
externally flanged.
Tapered monopoles are designed as
12, 16, or 18-sided and to various
heights
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Slip Joint is the favorite and easiest
Slip Joint is the most common
Typical 150 pole will
come in 3 sections
Sections weight various depending on design – typical
Bottom section: 10K – 13K lbs
Mid section : 7K – 9K lbs
Top Section : 3K – 6K lbs
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Base Plates – Lots of Varity
Base Plates come in many shapes and sizes
Unfortunately the type of base plate does
not lead insight to the manufacture
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – By Who
Manufacture
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Manufactures: Who and Where
Is now
Valley NE
Sioux City IA
Ontario NY South Bend IN
Newbury OH
Ft Worth TX
Pensacola FLPeoria IL
Plymouth IN
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Manufactures: Who does what
These Companies manufacture primarily continuous-taper slip jointed monopoles
These Companies manufacture both continuous-taper slip jointed and step taper
with internal and external flange monopoles
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Typical Parts
Accessories
&
Mounts
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Basic Parts & Accessories
Platforms & Mounts
A. Safety climb systems
B. Exit and Entry ports – Hand holes ?
C. Step Bolts
• Bolt on typical for
multiple and large
mount structures • Chain
mounts used
for lighter
application
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Specific Parts: Mounts
Triple T – Arm for 6 antennas
Ultra Low Profile Mount
Source: SitePro 1 (valmont)
Low Profile Platform for 12 antennas
Full Platform with Hand rail
Most Carrier Networks are designed using 3 sectors with at least 1 antenna / sector
Difficult access
for technician
Safe access
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Entry and Exit Ports
ATC Designs – Cricket W. Elgin IL
Entry Ports Exit Ports
Hand holes and Pipe exit are used
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundations
Foundations
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Types
Drilled Caisson most common .... Pad & Pier occasionally
Why:
• Area disturbed
by Fnd
Excavation
• Equipment
Shelter or
Cabinet
• Soil conditions
• Schedule
• Costs
Pegasus Twr – Scott PA
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Installation – Caisson
Drill Rig, Bits, Casing and Equipment needed
Clean Hole
Typical sizes 6-8’ diameter with depths ranging
from 18 – 28’
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Installation – Challenges
14’ down limestone becomes
a problem so the step
method - drilling down to
depth with a 2’ auger and
then going up in size in 1’
steps.
MNDOT - Silver Creek MN
Burned up replaceable tips
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Installation – Caisson
After hole is drilled to
required depth - Rebar cage
is lifted into hole and
secured /positioned prior to
pouring concrete.
Note: the Drill Rig is used for, drilling
removing spoils, and lifting the required
material used in the foundation
Majority of concrete is
poured into hole prior to
setting anchor bolts
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Installation – anchor bolts
Anchor bolts and template are lowered
into hole once the concrete is filled to a
certain level
Anchor bolts assembly
Then the concrete is poured out
Note - Anchor bolts projection
critical for final plumbing of pole
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Foundation Installation – Pad & Pier
The Pad & Pier requires more area & schedule
but clearly is a more costs effective approach.
21’ x 21’ pad with 6’ pier
Pegasus - Scott PA
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Offload, Assembly & Erection
Offload
Assembly & Erection
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole offload and Assembly
Depending on the size of
the structure
the pole could be delivered
on one or many truck loads.
90 ton crane typical for stacking 150 – 190’ Monopole
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole offload and Assembly
Platform
First step is to install the step bolts
Prep the anchor bolts with the elevation nuts
Each new structure has come
with an identity name plate –
Manufacture, Site Name, Date
etc.
Everything is assembled on the ground to
minimize the work in the air.
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Erection – First Section (bottom)
First step – Know proper orientation for bottom Entry ports as it relates to the equipment
One of the workers
will be responsible
to providing the crane
with hands signals
to safely raise, lower
and position the
10,000+ lbs steel
section on the anchor
bolts
This hand signal
means “ Hold” while
they rotate the section
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Assembly & Erection
Another view – Setting the base section
Slip joint in action – note no step bolts in area
Overlap of sections
Tag lines
are used to
guide and
pivot the
section for
correct
alignment
Note the straps used to lift the pole – choked and
not at the top – why ?
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Erection section by section
90 ton crane typical for stacking 150 – 190’ Monopole
Each section is lifted in place
and set. The self weight of the
section causes the slip joint to seat fully with the help of a
little soup acting as a lubricant.
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Erection - topping off
The platform is always assembled on the
ground prior. Most of the time it is the last
large section to be raised and installed.
Sometimes it is bolted on the top section prior
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – How are Antennas installed ?
Installing Equipment
www.fullertonengineering.com
Installing Equipment on Monopoles
Once the pole is stack - next is to
Install the equipment. Since the
hourly rate for crane is expensive, the Crew
breaks down the crane (removes jib),
and gets the crane off the project to
stop the billable clock.
Then a block is used at the top of the structure and
the tower is now part of the lifting equipment
Capstan winch
with foot switch
Single drum winch with
Rope capstone on the side
www.fullertonengineering.com
Most Common Equipment – Support Hardware
Here are a few of the most common equipment accessories (support hardware)
used to secure the equipment to tower, on the mounts and into the equipment
enclosure:
Angle Adapter
Round Member Adapter
(with standoff)
Hoisting Grip
Snap-in and Standard hanger
www.fullertonengineering.com
Installing & Alignment on Monopoles
Antenna
Alignment Tool for
proper Azimuth
Digital Level
LTE, PCS, Cellular, M/W antennas
jumpers, etc all need to be secured
and protected from high winds &
extreme weather conditions
Tools used to Align
the antennas
www.fullertonengineering.com
Installing Equipment on Monopoles
Needs details (2)
Which coax
Goes to
which
Antenna ?
Color coding
is used to
identify top
and bottom
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Typical Service
Maintenance
Up and Down
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Maintenance – Keeping things clean
Maintenance – Debris removal and or Surface repair
Debris removal
often is required
Upstairs
as well as at the
base of the
pole
Most surface
Repair is done
Using ZRC Galv
Compound
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Maintenance – Keeping things clean
Close up look reveals the size and qty of the debris ... Sometimes we find left over dinner
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole Maintenance – at times stops work !
Nesting is common on all types
of towers at all various heights
In some geographical areas some
Bird species are protected and prevent
work on the towers during nesting periods
View looking at the bottom of the platform
Top view – old nest
Large bird...
or lots of them
www.fullertonengineering.com
Monopole – Summary & Key Points
• Requires Smallest Area
• Shorter Heights
• Low Maintenance
• Fast to Construct
• Continuous Taper with Slip Joint is
the most common
• Drilled Caisson most common
www.fullertonengineering.com
Specialized Suppliers & Resources
www.sabretowersandpoles.com
www.valmont.com/valmont-
structures/products/wireless-communication
www.wirelesscomponents.com
Specialty Manufacturing LLC
www.ep-ind.com Fred Teichman
www.linkedin.com/in/fredteichman
www.engend.com
www.primuselectronics.com
www.us-instrument.com
www.wirelessestimator.com

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