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Scientists Women - Javier M. 4t. B


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Scientists Women

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Scientists Women - Javier M. 4t. B

  1. 1. Javier Máñez 4t. B Marie Curie Rosalind Franklin Jocelyn Bell Burnell Lise Meitner
  2. 2. WHAT ARE PHYSICS? • PHYSICS: – It’s the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. – More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understan how the universe behaves. – Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. – Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. – New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences. – Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs.
  3. 3. • CHEMISTRY: – It’s a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. – It’s chiefly concerned with atoms and molecules and their interactions and transformations. – As such, chemistry studies the involvement of electrons and various forms of energy in photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures. – Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology. – Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distint from physics. – The history of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. WHAT ARE CHEMISTRY?
  4. 4. Marie Curie • Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born in Warsaw on November 7, 1867. • She died in 4 July 1934 (aged 66). • She was a daughter of a secondary-school teacher. She received a general education in local schools and some scientific training from her father. • She became involved in a students' revolutionary organization and found it prudent to leave Warsaw. • In 1891, she went to Paris to continue her studies at the Sorbonne where she obtained Licenciateships in Physics and the Mathematical Sciences. • She met Pierre Curie, Professor in the School of Physics in 1894 and in the following year they were married. They had a daughter called Irene.
  5. 5. Marie Curie • Following the tragic death of Pierre Curie in 1906, she took his place as Professor of General Physics in the Faculty of Sciences, the first time a woman had held this position. • She was also appointed Director of the Curie Laboratory in the Radium Institute of the University of Paris, founded in 1914. • The discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896 inspired the Curies in their brilliant researches and analyses which led to the isolation of polonium, named after the country of Marie's birth, and radium. • Mme. Curie throughout her life actively promoted the use of radium to alleviate suffering and during World War I, assisted by her daughter, Irene, she personally devoted herself to this remedial work.
  6. 6. • She was a member of the Conseil du Physique Solvay from 1911 until her death and since 1922 she had been a member of the Committee of Intellectual Co-operation of the League of Nations. Marie Curie • She was a member of the Conseil du Physique Solvay from 1911 until her death and since 1922 she had been a member of the Committee of Intellectual Co-operation of the League of Nations. • she is the author of Recherches sur les Substances Radioactives (1904),L'Isotopie et les Éléments Isotopes and the classic Traité' de Radioactivité(1910). • She received many honorary science, medicine and law degrees and honorary memberships of learned societies throughout the world.
  7. 7. • Together with her husband, she was awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903, for their study into the spontaneous radiation discovered by Becquerel, who was awarded the other half of the Prize. Marie Curie • In 1911 she received a second Nobel Prize, this time in Chemistry, in recognition of her work in radioactivity. • She also received, jointly with her husband, the Davy Medal of the Royal Society in 1903 and, in 1921, President Harding of the United States, on behalf of the women of America, presented her with one gram of radium in recognition of her service to science. • She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first person to win twice.
  8. 8. Rosalind Franklin • 25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958. • Was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite. • British chemist Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born into an affluent and influential Jewish family on July 25, 1920, in Notting Hill, London, England. • She displayed exceptional intelligence from early childhood, knowing from the age of 15 that she wanted to be a scientist. • Rosalind Franklin enrolled at Newnham College, Cambridge, in 1938 and studied chemistry.
  9. 9. • In 1941, she was awarded Second Class Honors in her finals, which, at that time, was accepted as a bachelor's degree in the qualifications for employment. Rosalind Franklin • She went on to work as an assistant research officer at the British Coal Utilisation Research Association, where she studied the porosity of coal—work that was the basis of her 1945 Ph.D. thesis "The physical chemistry of solid organic colloids with special reference to coal”. • Franklin and her student Raymond Gosling made an amazing discovery: They took pictures of DNA and discovered that there were two forms of it, a dry "A" form and a wet "B" form.
  10. 10. • After finishing her portion of the work on DNA, with her own research team at Birkbeck College, Franklin led pioneering work on the molecular structures of viruses, including tobacco mosaic virus and the polio virus. • Continuing her research, her team member, and later her beneficiary Aaron Klug went on to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982. • In the fall of 1956, Franklin discovered that she had ovarian cancer. She continued working throughout the following two years, despite having three operations and experimental chemotherapy. • She experienced a 10-month remission and worked up until several weeks before her death on April 16, 1958, at the age of 37. Rosalind Franklin
  11. 11. Jocelyn Bell Burnell • Bell whose married name became Burnell is a female British astronomer and astrophysicist who discovered the first pulsars. Pulsars are stars that release regular bursts of radio waves and the discovery ranks as an important milestone in the history of astrophysics. • She began her road to discovery while attending Cambridge University, England working on her Ph.D. As a research student under the supervision of her staff advisor Anthony Hewish, Jocelyn began work on a radio astronomy project designed to study the interplanetary scintillation (twinkling) of compact radio waves. • Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell was born on July 15, 1943 in Belfast Ireland.
  12. 12. • In November 1967 Jocelyn began to take notice of unusual signals which she termed as "scruff" that at first was thought to be some form of radio wave interference, a common occurrence with highly sensitive radio telescopes. Jocelyn Bell Burnell • Jocelyn was able to record these radio pulse surveillance and study them in great detail. • As news of the discovery began to spread the astronomy community began to speculate as to the source of these anomalies. • At the time the discovery was the most suggestive of an extraterrestrial intelligent origin that had ever been detected and Jocelyn herself termed this first stellar discovery LGM which stood for Little Green Men.
  13. 13. • In time these radio signals proved to be emissions from a unique category of neutron star. • Jocelyn Burnell Bell had made the most remarkable astronomical discovery in recent history; she had detected the first known pulsar, a rapidly spinning neutron star that sends out regular burst of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation. Jocelyn Bell Burnell • Bell recognized that the source changed its position in the sky from day to day at the same rate as the stars, proof that it was not a man-made signal.
  14. 14. • Jocelyn Bell Burnell has received numerous awards for her professional contributions. • She was first elected as a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1969 and has served as its Vice President. • Among many of her awards she received the Beatrice M. Tinsley Prize from the American Astronomical Society in 1987 and the Herschel Medal from the Royal Astronomical Society in 1989. Jocelyn Bell Burnell • She is a recipient of the Oppenheimer Prize and The Michelson Medal. • She has been frequently interviewed and was the cover story for the May 1995 issue of the magazine Current Biography.
  15. 15. Lise Meitner • She was an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. • The third of eight children of a Jewish family, she entered the University of Vienna in 1901, studying physics under Ludwig Boltzmann. • After she obtained her doctorate degree in 1906, she went to Berlin in 1907 to study with Max Planck and the chemist Otto Hahn. • She worked together with Hahn for 30 years, each of them leading a section in Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry. • Lise Meitner was born on November 7, 1878, in Vienna, Austria. She died on October 27, 1968, in Cambridge, England (aged 89).
  16. 16. • In 1918, they discovered the element protactinium. • In 1923, Meitner discovered the radiationless transition known as the Auger effect, which is named for Pierre Victor Auger, a French scientist who discovered the effect two years later. • in 1938, Meitner was forced to flee Germany for Sweden. She continued her work at Manne Siegbahn's institute in Stockholm, but with little support, partially due to Siegbahn's prejudice against women in science. Lise Meitner • The experiments that provided the evidence for nuclear fission were done at Hahn's laboratory in Berlin and published in January 1939.
  17. 17. Lise Meitner • In February 1939, Meitner published the physical explanation for the observations and, with her nephew, physicist Otto Frisch, named the process nuclear fission. • The discovery led other scientists to prompt Albert Einstein to write President Franklin D. Roosevelt a warning letter, which led to the Manhattan Project. • In 1944, Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his research into fission, but Meitner was ignored, partly because Hahn downplayed her role ever since she left Germany. • The Nobel mistake, never acknowledged, was partly rectified in 1966, when Hahn, Meitner, and Strassman were awarded the Enrico Fermi Award.
  18. 18. • On a visit to the U.S. in 1946, she was given total American press celebrity treatment, as someone who had "left Germany with the bomb in my purse." Lise Meitner • Meitner retired to Cambridge, England, in 1960, where she died October 27. • In 1992, element 109, the heaviest known element in the universe, was named Meitnerium (Mt) in her honor. • Many consider Lise Meitner the "most significant woman scientist of the 20th Century."
  19. 19. SOURCES: • cientificas-mas-importantes-de-la-historia • arie-curie-bio.html • • • • • KPPgMgK&ved=0CBIQqi4oAg • •