Javier Máñez 4t. B
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
WHAT ARE PHYSICS?
– It’s the natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion
through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy
– More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order
to understan how the universe behaves.
– Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest
through its inclusion of astronomy.
– Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such
as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics
are not rigidly defined.
– New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of
– Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new
technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs.
– It’s a branch of physical science that studies the composition,
structure, properties and change of matter.
– It’s chiefly concerned with atoms and molecules and their interactions
– As such, chemistry studies the involvement of electrons and various
forms of energy in photochemical reactions, oxidation-reduction
reactions, changes in phases of matter, and separation of mixtures.
– Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges
other natural sciences like physics, geology and biology.
– Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distint from physics.
– The history of chemistry can be traced to certain practices, known as
alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various
parts of the world.
WHAT ARE CHEMISTRY?
• Marie Curie, née Maria Sklodowska, was born
in Warsaw on November 7, 1867.
• She died in 4 July 1934 (aged 66).
• She was a daughter of a secondary-school teacher. She received a
general education in local schools and some scientific training
from her father.
• She became involved in a students' revolutionary organization and
found it prudent to leave Warsaw.
• In 1891, she went to Paris to continue her studies at the Sorbonne
where she obtained Licenciateships in Physics and the
• She met Pierre Curie, Professor in the School of Physics in 1894
and in the following year they were married. They had a daughter
• Following the tragic death of Pierre Curie in
1906, she took his place as Professor of
General Physics in the Faculty of Sciences,
the first time a woman had held this
• She was also appointed Director of the Curie Laboratory in the
Radium Institute of the University of Paris, founded in 1914.
• The discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel in 1896
inspired the Curies in their brilliant researches and analyses
which led to the isolation of polonium, named after the country
of Marie's birth, and radium.
• Mme. Curie throughout her life actively promoted the use of
radium to alleviate suffering and during World War I, assisted by
her daughter, Irene, she personally devoted herself to this
• She was a member of the Conseil du Physique
Solvay from 1911 until her death and since 1922
she had been a member of the Committee of
Intellectual Co-operation of the League of
• She was a member of the Conseil du Physique Solvay from 1911
until her death and since 1922 she had been a member of the
Committee of Intellectual Co-operation of the League of
• she is the author of Recherches sur les Substances
Radioactives (1904),L'Isotopie et les Éléments Isotopes and the
classic Traité' de Radioactivité(1910).
• She received many honorary science, medicine and law degrees
and honorary memberships of learned societies throughout the
• Together with her husband, she was
awarded half of the Nobel Prize for Physics
in 1903, for their study into the
spontaneous radiation discovered by
Becquerel, who was awarded the other half
of the Prize.
• In 1911 she received a second Nobel Prize, this time in
Chemistry, in recognition of her work in radioactivity.
• She also received, jointly with her husband, the Davy Medal of
the Royal Society in 1903 and, in 1921, President Harding of the
United States, on behalf of the women of America, presented
her with one gram of radium in recognition of her service to
• She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the first
person to win twice.
• 25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958.
• Was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made
critical contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular
structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite.
• British chemist Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born into an affluent
and influential Jewish family on July 25, 1920, in Notting Hill,
• She displayed exceptional intelligence from early childhood,
knowing from the age of 15 that she wanted to be a scientist.
• Rosalind Franklin enrolled at Newnham College, Cambridge, in
1938 and studied chemistry.
• In 1941, she was awarded Second Class Honors
in her finals, which, at that time, was accepted
as a bachelor's degree in the qualifications for
• She went on to work as an assistant research officer at the
British Coal Utilisation Research Association, where she
studied the porosity of coal—work that was the basis of her
1945 Ph.D. thesis "The physical chemistry of solid organic
colloids with special reference to coal”.
• Franklin and her student Raymond Gosling made an amazing
discovery: They took pictures of DNA and discovered that
there were two forms of it, a dry "A" form and a wet "B" form.
• After finishing her portion of the work on DNA, with her own
research team at Birkbeck College, Franklin led pioneering
work on the molecular structures of viruses, including tobacco
mosaic virus and the polio virus.
• Continuing her research, her team member, and later her
beneficiary Aaron Klug went on to win the Nobel Prize in
Chemistry in 1982.
• In the fall of 1956, Franklin discovered that she had ovarian
cancer. She continued working throughout the following two
years, despite having three operations and experimental
• She experienced a 10-month remission and worked up until
several weeks before her death on April 16, 1958, at the age
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
• Bell whose married name became Burnell is a female British
astronomer and astrophysicist who discovered the first
pulsars. Pulsars are stars that release regular bursts of radio
waves and the discovery ranks as an important milestone in
the history of astrophysics.
• She began her road to discovery while attending Cambridge
University, England working on her Ph.D. As a research
student under the supervision of her staff advisor Anthony
Hewish, Jocelyn began work on a radio astronomy project
designed to study the interplanetary scintillation (twinkling)
of compact radio waves.
• Susan Jocelyn Bell Burnell was born on July 15,
1943 in Belfast Ireland.
• In November 1967 Jocelyn began to take
notice of unusual signals which she termed
as "scruff" that at first was thought to be
some form of radio wave interference, a
common occurrence with highly sensitive
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
• Jocelyn was able to record these radio pulse surveillance and
study them in great detail.
• As news of the discovery began to spread the astronomy
community began to speculate as to the source of these
• At the time the discovery was the most suggestive of an
extraterrestrial intelligent origin that had ever been detected and
Jocelyn herself termed this first stellar discovery LGM which stood
for Little Green Men.
• In time these radio signals proved to be emissions from a unique
category of neutron star.
• Jocelyn Burnell Bell had made the most remarkable astronomical
discovery in recent history; she had detected the first known
pulsar, a rapidly spinning neutron star that sends out regular
burst of radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation.
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
• Bell recognized that the source
changed its position in the sky
from day to day at the same rate
as the stars, proof that it was not
a man-made signal.
• Jocelyn Bell Burnell has received numerous awards for her
• She was first elected as a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society
in 1969 and has served as its Vice President.
• Among many of her awards she received the Beatrice M. Tinsley
Prize from the American Astronomical Society in 1987 and the
Herschel Medal from the Royal Astronomical Society in 1989.
Jocelyn Bell Burnell
• She is a recipient of the Oppenheimer
Prize and The Michelson Medal.
• She has been frequently interviewed
and was the cover story for the May
1995 issue of the magazine Current
• She was an Austrian physicist who worked on radioactivity
and nuclear physics.
• The third of eight children of a Jewish family, she entered the
University of Vienna in 1901, studying physics under Ludwig
• After she obtained her doctorate degree in 1906, she went to
Berlin in 1907 to study with Max Planck and the chemist Otto
• She worked together with Hahn for 30 years, each of them
leading a section in Berlin's Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
• Lise Meitner was born on November 7, 1878,
in Vienna, Austria. She died on October 27,
1968, in Cambridge, England (aged 89).
• In 1918, they discovered the element protactinium.
• In 1923, Meitner discovered the radiationless transition
known as the Auger effect, which is named for Pierre Victor
Auger, a French scientist who discovered the effect two years
• in 1938, Meitner was forced to flee Germany for Sweden. She
continued her work at Manne Siegbahn's institute in
Stockholm, but with little support, partially due to Siegbahn's
prejudice against women in science.
• The experiments that
provided the evidence for
nuclear fission were done at
Hahn's laboratory in Berlin
and published in January
• In February 1939, Meitner published the
physical explanation for the observations and,
with her nephew, physicist Otto Frisch,
named the process nuclear fission.
• The discovery led other scientists to prompt Albert Einstein to
write President Franklin D. Roosevelt a warning letter, which
led to the Manhattan Project.
• In 1944, Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for
his research into fission, but Meitner was ignored, partly
because Hahn downplayed her role ever since she left
• The Nobel mistake, never acknowledged, was partly rectified
in 1966, when Hahn, Meitner, and Strassman were awarded
the Enrico Fermi Award.
• On a visit to the U.S. in 1946, she was
given total American press celebrity
treatment, as someone who had "left
Germany with the bomb in my purse."
• Meitner retired to Cambridge, England, in 1960, where she
died October 27.
• In 1992, element 109, the heaviest known element in the
universe, was named Meitnerium (Mt) in her honor.
• Many consider Lise Meitner the "most significant woman
scientist of the 20th Century."