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Bluetooth

Bluetooth

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Welcome
1
2
Submitted TO:
Mr. Habibulla Bilali
Submitted By:
Fahim Faysal
3
Overview:
• Abstract
• Background
• Block Diagram
• Different Attributers
– Name and logo
– Spectrum
– Connectivity
– Range
• Operation
– Transmitter
– Receivers
• Application
4
Overview (cont..):
• Advantage
• Bluetooth vs wi-fi
• Bluetooth vs infrared
• Networking
• Security
• Limitation
• Future
• Summary
• Reference
5
Abstract:
Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short
distances. Enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. Creating
personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Short-wavelength radio
transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz. The Bluetooth technology is
possible to implement almost to the arbitrary equipment.
Bluetooth technology used to share voice, music, photos, videos, and other
information wirelessly between two paired devices.
6

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Bluetooth

  • 2. 2
  • 3. Submitted TO: Mr. Habibulla Bilali Submitted By: Fahim Faysal 3
  • 4. Overview: • Abstract • Background • Block Diagram • Different Attributers – Name and logo – Spectrum – Connectivity – Range • Operation – Transmitter – Receivers • Application 4
  • 5. Overview (cont..): • Advantage • Bluetooth vs wi-fi • Bluetooth vs infrared • Networking • Security • Limitation • Future • Summary • Reference 5
  • 6. Abstract: Bluetooth is an open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances. Enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. Creating personal area networks (PANs) with high levels of security. Short-wavelength radio transmissions in the ISM band from 2400–2480 MHz. The Bluetooth technology is possible to implement almost to the arbitrary equipment. Bluetooth technology used to share voice, music, photos, videos, and other information wirelessly between two paired devices. 6
  • 7. Background  1994: Bluetooth technology was invented by engineers at Ericsson, a Swedish company.  1998: A group of companies agreed to work together using Bluetooth technology as a way to connect their products. The name Bluetooth is officially adopted  1999: The Bluetooth 1.0 Specification is released Bluetooth technology is awarded "Best of Show Technology Award“  2000: First Bluetooth technology comes to market  2001: First laptop, printer with Bluetooth The Bluetooth SIG, Inc. is formed as a privately-held trade association  2002: First keyboard and mouse combo First GPS receiver Bluetooth wireless qualified products hits 500  2003: First MP3 player with Bluetooth technology shipments grow to 1 million per week Version 1.2 adopted by the Bluetooth SIG  2004: First stereo headphones Version 2.0 Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) an installed base of 250 million devices 7
  • 8. Background (cont..): 2005: First stereo headphones SIG Headquarters opens in Bellevue 2006: First sunglasses, First watch, First picture frame 2007: First alarm-clock radio, First television 2008 : In 10th anniversary 2 billion Bluetooth enabled products shipped in 10 years 2009: The SIG adopts Core Specification Version 3.0 HS, making Bluetooth high speed technology a reality 2010: The Bluetooth SIG headquarters moves to Kirkland, WA, USA 2011: The SIG picks a 3D television for its Best of CES award winner. Apple and Nordic Semiconductor join the SIG Board of Directors 2012: first Bluetooth Smart Ready tablets and music players hit the market. 2013: Cumulative Bluetooth product shipments surpass 2.5 billion* 8
  • 9. Block Diagram Component Bluetooth Antenna RF Transceiver Transceiver module RF Clock Buffer RF Clock Circuit Application Processor Power Supply Figure : Block Diagram of Bluetooth 9
  • 10. Block Diagram PCB of Bluetooth Figure: PCB of Bluetooth 10
  • 11. Embedded Linux/WinCE Figure: Bluetooth inside Embedded Linux/WinCE 11
  • 12. Name and logo • 'Bluetooth' was the code name for the SIG when it was first formed and the name stuck • Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark and Norway • The idea of this name was proposed by Jim Kardach who developed a system Two logo of Bluetooth : Hagall and Bjarkan 12
  • 13. Range Range may vary depending on class of radio used in an implementation: • Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet • Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 33 feet • Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet 13
  • 14. Spectrum • Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz. • using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, • full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. 14
  • 15. Different Types of Connectivity Compared Type Speed Range IrDA 9.6kb - 115kb (- 4Mb) < 6ft Wi-Fi 1Mb - 54Mb 50ft - 150ft Bluetooth 120kb - 723kb 30ft - 300ft GPRS < 115kb wherever suitable cellphone coverage 2.5G variously up to about 128kb wherever suitable cellphone coverage 3G 2Mb stationary, 384kb moving with good signal, 144kb moving fast/poor signal wherever suitable cellphone coverage DSL/Cable 100kb - 1.5Mb not wireless LAN 10Mb - 100Mb not wireless 15
  • 16. Operation Radio Specification of the Bluetooth System  Transmitter requirements  Transmitter block diagram  Power classes  Spurious emission  Receiver requirements  Receiver block diagram  Golden receive power range  Interference performance  Out-of-band blocking  Spurious Modulation Products 16
  • 17. Transmitter block diagram Fig. 3.1: Bluetooth transmitter block diagram 17
  • 18. Digital Bluetooth receiver block diagram Fig. 4.1: Digital Bluetooth receiver block diagram 18
  • 19. Analog Bluetooth receiver block diagram Fig. 4.2: Analog Bluetooth receiver block diagram 19
  • 20. Use/Application: • Wireless control of communication between a cell phone and hands free or car kit. This is the most popular use. • Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. • Wireless communication with Pc input and output devises. • Transfer of files between devices via OBEX Fig: Bluetooth device 20
  • 21. Use/Application(cont…): • Replacement of traditional wired serial communication in test equipment, GPS receivers and medical equipments. • For remote controls where infrared was traditional used? • Sending small advertisement from Bluetooth enabled advertising hoarding to other. • Sending commands and software to the LEGO mind storms NXT instead of infrared. 21
  • 22. Bluetooth Security Bluetooth Basics • 2.45 Ghz, GFSK, Freq-Hopping (1600 h/s, 79 Hops, 1 Mhz Spacing) • Max BW of 1 Mbps Raw (- FEC (1/3, 2/3, ARQ), - overhead) • Architecture: Radio, Base Frequency, Link Manager • Uses hybrid cct and packet switching. • Supports either: - 1 asynchronous data channel + 3 synch speech chan. OR - 1 channel that carries both asynch. data and synch speech • LMP (Link Manager Protocol) configures, authenticates, handles connections, • performs power management (sniff, hold, park modes) 22
  • 23. Security Measures 1. Authentication - secure links to authentication server required - Trusted Parties/ Certificate Distribution (PKI) 2. Encryption 3. Key-Management 23
  • 24. Bluetooth Security Device Address (BD_ADDR) (unique 48-bit) Private Authentication key (128-bit random number) Private Encryption key (128-bit random number) (Pseudo) Random Number (RAND) 128-bit PR number generated on the fly by the device Personal Identification Number (PIN 3-128 bits) - can be programmed into device for connections validation or a mutual PIN selected and entered live for initialization 3 Security Modes in ‘Generic Profile’: - Mode 1: Non-Secure - Mode 2: service level enforced security - Mode 3: link level enforced security (Bluetooth device initiates security before establishing a link) 2 levels of devices (trusted and untrusted) 3 levels of service requirements (open, authenticated, authenticated and authorized) 24
  • 25. Key Management • 128-bit Pseudo Random link key handles all security transactions • Link key is used in authentication, and to derive the encryption key • A link key is either a single session temporary key (common for point-to-multipoint) or semi-permanent (shared among a group and used for authentication) • A link key is one of 4 types (combination, unit, master, or initialization) depending on the application. 25
  • 26. Types of Link Keys • Initialization Key - used as the link key during initialization to set up the unit and combination keys – formed using entered PINs - necessary whenever 2 devices with no prior engagements want to communicate • Unit Key - generated within a single device when installed (rarely changed) • Combination Key - derived from information in a pair of Bluetooth devices • Master Key - temporary key that replaces the current link-key - used by the Master, typically for broadcast messages 26
  • 28. Authentication • Alice generates a random number and sends it to Bob • Bob uses his ID, Alice’s generated RAND, and the current link key to generate a response • Alice also uses Bob’s ID, the current link key, and her random number to verify the response matches and that it is indeed Bob • Bob can then challenge Alice 28
  • 29. Security Problem • E0 is weak if the length of the session is longer than the shortest-LFSR cycle (225 bits) • Since Bluetooth re-syncs after each packet however (and uses a different 26-bit value for the master clock counter) – may still be vulnerable • If Alice’s unit key is used in secret conversation with Bob, and Alice then wants to talk to Charlie using her unit key, • Bob can intercept and impersonate Charlie • The root key is based only on a normally 4 digit PIN • The BD_ADDR is sent out on every transaction and therefore tracking is viable 29
  • 30. Limitation of Bluetooth : 1. Speed. Bluetooth is not designed for high-speed data transfers. 2. Range. The range of communications is often limited to a few feet (I've seen as few as 2 and as many as 30). 3. Compatibility. Some devices do not have profiles compatible with the devices you want to connect with. 4. Though the transfer speeds are impressive at around 1 Mbps, certain other technologies like Infrared can offer speeds up to 4 Mbps. This is an area that can be improved on in the near future. 5. Even though the security is good, it is even better on Infrared. This is because of the comparatively larger range of Bluetooth and also the lack of a line of sight. Someone who knows how to hack such networks can do so eventually. 30
  • 31. Limitation of Bluetooth(cont..): 6. The battery usage during a single transfer is negligible, but there are some people who leave the device switched on in their devices. This inevitably eats into the battery of these devices, and lowers the battery life considerably. 7. Bluetooth does not address routing. It does not specify which unicast or multicast ad hoc routing schemes to use. In fact, most network functions are pushed ridiculously into the link layer. It does not support multi-hop multicasting. 8. Bluetooth’s MAC protocol is based on frequency hopping, which requires some form of hop synchronization. Bluetooth’s MAC protocol does not address how to cope with mobility. A response to mobility is unknown in Bluetooth. 9. In Bluetooth, the MASTER node is the bottleneck! The Bluetooth architecture also limits the number of nodes in a piconet! Bluetooth does not address interoperability issues. It is not clear how Bluetooth devices can interoperate with WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) devices. 10. Bluetooth also ignores power-saving methods done at upper layers, above the link layer. Bluetooth cannot operate in a multiple-air interface environment. 31
  • 32. Future of Bluetooth • The future of Bluetooth looks strong, with initiatives underway for higher throughput, more ubiquitous usage and links with Wifi and Ultra Wideband (UWB) broadcast technology. • Operating systems such as the Mac Os and Windows continue to have native support for Bluetooth. • The Bluetooth SIG partners are working on enabling Bluetooth information points, to enable advertising models based around users pulling information from ‘information points’, rather than having to ‘push’ information out. • Other emerging features include Bluetooth in cars; automatic configuration of piconets; and quality of service (QoS) improvements, for example enabling audio and video data to be transmitted at a higher quality. • Integration with WiFi scanning tools (namely Airsnort) • New scanning methods. 32
  • 33. Future of Bluetooth (cont..): • Bluetooth will be able to complete all other wireless technologies, such as Wi-Fi networking , infra-red data association , etc. • • Enables bluetooth information points ,This will drive the adoption of Bluetooth into cellphones . • Enable advertising models based around users pulling information from the information points, and not based around the object push model that is used in a limited way today. • • Enables the automatic configuration of the piconet topologies especially in scatternet situations that are becoming more common today.This should all be invisible to the users of the technology.,while also making the technology just work. • • Enables the use of alternative MAC and PHY’s for transporting Bluetooth .. 33
  • 34. Summary The Bluetooth system slowly comes to the basic interface especially at mobile phone accessories, PDA, PC and accessories, etc. Bluetooth promises to be a low cost, convenient, and simple way of enabling your various computer devices to talk to each other and to their peripherals. The reality has yet to match the promise, but Bluetooth is becoming more widespread and functional every day. Bluetooth is almost certainly in your future 34
  • 35. Reference: • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth#Communication_and_connection [10.3.13] • http://www.techterms.com/definition/bluetooth [20.3.13] • https://www.slideshare.net/signup?from=download&from_source=%2Fsavedfiles%3Fs_title %3Dbluetooth-abstract-paper- presentation%26user_login%3Dguestac67362&download_id=2924172- 056cfc62215db7b00a97b2bc35d40f1b2aa80492-slideshow [1.4.13] • http://in2.csie.ncu.edu.tw/~jrjiang/publication/A%20Mechanism%20for%20Quick%20Blueto oth%20Device%20Discovery.pdf[20.4.13] • http://www.elektrorevue.cz/clanky/04003/english.htm[20.4.13] • https://www.bluetooth.org/en-us[20.4.13] • http://www.gsmfavorites.com/documents/bluetooth/works/[21.4.13] • And Other …………. 35
  • 37. 37