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Topical medications administration

E
Ekta Patel

Topical medications administration

1 of 54
Topical
Medications
Administration
By,
Ms. Ekta S Patel,
Assistant Professor.
“
“
“
‐ Topical medications are
applied directly to the body
surfaces, including the skin
and mucous membranes
of the eyes, ears, nose,
vagina, and rectum.
‐ There are many classes of topical
medications, such as creams,
ointments, lotions, patches, and
aerosol sprays.
‐ Medications that are applied to the
skin to produce slow, controlled,
systemic effect are also referred to
as transdermal.

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Topical medications administration

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. “ ‐ Topical medications are applied directly to the body surfaces, including the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, ears, nose, vagina, and rectum.
  • 5. ‐ There are many classes of topical medications, such as creams, ointments, lotions, patches, and aerosol sprays.
  • 6. ‐ Medications that are applied to the skin to produce slow, controlled, systemic effect are also referred to as transdermal.
  • 7. ‐ Medications that can be administered via a topical route include antibiotics, narcotics, hormones, and even chemotherapeutics.
  • 8. ‐ This requires adherence to the ten "rights" of medication administration and three checks during the administration process to ensure the safe administration of these medications.
  • 9. ‐ Also, the administration of the topical medications requires wearing gloves to protect the healthcare provider from accidental exposure and absorption of the medication. ‐ Topical medications should never be applied with the bare hands.
  • 11. 1. General medication administration considerations. ‐ In the patient's room, review the patient's medical history for medication allergies and previous administration times in the electronic Medication Administration Record (MAR).
  • 12. ‐ Confirm any patient preferences regarding topical transdermal patch administration, such as preferred site of application, any previous side effects, and previous applications of transdermal patches.
  • 14. ‐ Disinfect the hands by washing with soap and warm water, or by using a hand sanitizer if the hands are not visibly soiled; apply vigorous friction for at least 20 s. ‐ From this point on, you must maintain a distraction/disruption- free environment to prevent medication errors while dispensing and administering medications.
  • 15. ‐ Acquire the topical medications from the medication dispensing device, using the ten "rights" during the first safety check.
  • 16. 2. Complete the second safety check using the ten "rights" of medication administration. ‐ Complete the "Right Patient" for the second safety check by confirming that you have acquired topical transdermal, optic, and/or otic medications for the right patient on the MAR.
  • 17. ‐ Compare the medication names listed on the label with the medication names listed on the MAR. ‐ At this point, the "Right Medication" step is complete.
  • 18. ‐ Complete the "Right Dose" step by comparing the topical dose/concentrations listed on the label with the dose/concentrations listed on the MAR.
  • 19. ‐ Some prescriptions specify the exact amount to be applied, and these are generally supplied as single-dose applications in a patch form.
  • 20. ‐ If the medication is in an ointment tube, such as nitroglycerin, the MAR will describe the amount to be applied (e.g., "squeeze out one inch of medication"). ‐ The medication will be secured to the skin with an occlusive dressing to allow for gradual absorption.
  • 21. ‐ Verify that the medication routes listed on the label are consistent with the routes listed on the MAR. At this point, the "Right Route" step is complete.
  • 22. ‐ Review the MAR to confirm that it is the right time for administration. At this point, the "Right Time" step is complete.
  • 23. 3. Gather the necessary supplies, such as clean gloves and sterile gauze for cleaning. ‐ Additional supplies, like cottons balls, sterile swabs, or occlusive dressing may be necessary in certain cases.
  • 24. ‐ Cotton balls may be needed for eardrop administration. ‐ Topical antibiotic medications should be applied using swabs to prevent cross-contamination of the application site with environmental contaminants.
  • 25. Complete the third safety check using the ten "rights" of medication administration. ‐ Verify that the patient is wearing the correct name band by asking him/her to state his/her name and date of birth.
  • 26. 5. Teach the patient about the topical medication.
  • 27. 6. Administer the topical transdermal patch medication. ‐ Inform the patient that application of the topical transdermal patch medication will require exposing the application site. ‐ Ensure the patient's privacy and dignity by covering intimate body sites as much as possible with a blanket or towel during administration.
  • 28. ‐ In the case of transdermal patch application, determine the last site of administration. ‐ Carefully remove the previously applied patch and clean the skin of any remaining medication.
  • 29. ‐ Apply the new patch by carefully removing the outer packaging, removing the clear protective liner, and placing it in an area free of hair and that undergoes little movement.
  • 30. ‐ If using ointment topical medication, such as nitroglycerin, squeeze out the appropriate amount of topical percutaneous medication onto a measurement and application device.
  • 31. ‐ Apply clear, occlusive dressing over the ointment application device, securing it to the skin. Never rub or message ointment into the skin, as this may increase the absorption rate.
  • 32. ‐ Label the transdermal patch medication with the initials, time, and date of application using an indelible marker.
  • 33. 7. Administering ophthalmic (eye) medication. ‐ Describe the application process and ensure patient privacy ‐ Wash hands and don clean gloves ‐ Assist the patient to lie back, with the head tilted and neck extended. If neck injuries are present, do not extend the neck.
  • 34. ‐ Assess the eyelids and inner canthus for crusts or drainage. ‐ If drainage or crusts are present, gently cleanse the area with normal saline and gauze pads.
  • 35. ‐ Administering ophthalmic (eye) drops. ‐ While holding the eye drop medication in the dominant hand, gently rest the heal of the hand on the patient's forehead. ‐ Hold the medication approximately 1- 2 cm above the lower lid.
  • 36. ‐ With the non-dominant hand, gently pull the lower lid down to expose the conjunctival sac. ‐ Ask the patient to look up towards the ceiling. ‐ A cotton ball or tissue may be used to hold the lower lid down.
  • 37. ‐ Allow the prescribed number of drops to fall into the conjunctival sac. ‐ If drips do not fall with gravity, you may need to gently squeeze the medication bottle
  • 38. ‐ Never allow the tip of the bottle to touch the conjunctival sac or eye. ‐ If drops fall outside the lid or the patient blinks, causing a drop to miss the eye, repeat the procedure.
  • 39. ‐ Release the lower eyelid and ask the patient to gently close his/her eyes.
  • 41. Administering ophthalmic (eye) ointment. ‐ Again, rest the heal of the dominant hand on patient forehead while holding the ointment medication 1-2 cm above the lower lid. ‐ With the non-dominant hand, gently expose the inner conjunctiva of the lower lid using a fingertip or a cotton ball. ‐ Gently squeeze a thin line of ointment medication along the inner conjunctiva, from inner canthus to the outer canthus. Make sure to break the ribbon of ointment by turning the hand before lifting away, as the medication may otherwise pull away from the conjunctiva. ‐ Release the lower eyelid and ask the patient to blink and gently rub the eyelid to disperse the medication.
  • 42. 8. Administering otic (ear) drops ‐ Patient education on the administration procedure and hand hygiene with glove application should be completed. ‐ The patient may experience a feeling of water or hear bubbling in the ear as the medication is administered.
  • 43. ‐ Ask the patient to lie on his/her side, with the affected ear (i.e., the ear that requires medication administration) towards the ceiling
  • 44. ‐ Gently roll the medication between both hands for 10-20 s to both re- suspend particles and to warm the medication prior to administration. ‐ Cold ear medications may cause dizziness or nausea when administered.
  • 45. ‐ Using the non-dominant hand, gently pull the ear auricle up and outward to straighten the ear canal. ‐ For children 3 years old and younger, grasp the pinna and pull down and back to straighten the canal.
  • 46. ‐ Hold the medication bottle with the dominant hand approximately 1 cm above the ear canal and instill the prescribed number of drops. ‐ Never allow the tip of the medication bottle to touch the ear or the ear canal.
  • 47. ‐ Release the ear and gently place the medication bottle on the bedside table. ‐ Ask the patient to remain on his/her side for 2-3 min to aid in medication absorption.
  • 49. 10. Prior to leaving the room, remind the patient about any side effects/adverse effects or considerations for which he/she should notify the nurse.
  • 50. 11. Upon exiting the patient room, disinfect your hands again, as has been described earlier.
  • 51. Caution! ‐ While the administration of topical medications may appear to be simple and harmless, it is associated with many side effects if not performed properly.
  • 52. ‐ Unexpected inflammation and irritation should be reported to medical staff to prevent further tissue damage.
  • 53. ‐ A common mistake is administrating topical medication at a concentration unsuitable for the application site. ‐ For instance, a topical antibiotic has formulations for both the skin and eyes and, if applied incorrectly, could result in the loss of vision.
  • 54. ‐ Cool or cold otic medications may also cause dizziness and nausea.