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UNIT TESTING

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UNIT TESTING
• Unit testing focuses verification effort on the
smallest unit of software design—the
software component or module
Unit Test Considerations
• The module interface is tested to ensure that
information properly flows into and out of the
program unit under test
• The local data structure is examined to ensure
that data stored temporarily maintains its
integrity during all steps in an algorithm's
execution
Among the more common errors in
computation are
• (1) misunderstood or incorrect arithmetic
precedence
• (2) mixed mode operations
• (3) incorrect initialization
• (4) precision inaccuracy
• (5) incorrect symbolic representation of an
expression
Test cases should uncover errors
• (1) comparison of different data types
• (2) incorrect logical operators or precedence
• (3) expectation of equality when precision error
makes equality unlikely
• (4) incorrect comparison of variables
• (5) improper or nonexistent loop termination
• (6) failure to exit when divergent iteration is
encountered
• (7) improperly modified loop variables

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UNIT TESTING.pptx

  • 2. • Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of software design—the software component or module
  • 4. • The module interface is tested to ensure that information properly flows into and out of the program unit under test • The local data structure is examined to ensure that data stored temporarily maintains its integrity during all steps in an algorithm's execution
  • 5. Among the more common errors in computation are • (1) misunderstood or incorrect arithmetic precedence • (2) mixed mode operations • (3) incorrect initialization • (4) precision inaccuracy • (5) incorrect symbolic representation of an expression
  • 6. Test cases should uncover errors • (1) comparison of different data types • (2) incorrect logical operators or precedence • (3) expectation of equality when precision error makes equality unlikely • (4) incorrect comparison of variables • (5) improper or nonexistent loop termination • (6) failure to exit when divergent iteration is encountered • (7) improperly modified loop variables
  • 7. Among the potential errors that should be tested when error handling is evaluated are • 1. Error description is unintelligible • 2. Error noted does not correspond to error encountered • 3. Error condition causes system intervention prior to error handling • 4. Exception-condition processing is incorrect • 5. Error description does not provide enough information to assist in the location of the cause of the error
  • 9. Unit Test Procedures • Unit testing is simplified when a component with high cohesion is designed • When only one function is addressed by a component, the number of test cases is reduced and errors can be more easily predicted and uncovered
  • 10. VALIDATION TESTING • The process of evaluating software during the development process or at the end of the development process to determine whether it satisfies specified business requirements • Validation Testing ensures that the product actually meets the client's needs • Are we building the right product
  • 12. • The alpha test is conducted at the developer's site by a customer • The beta test is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-user of the software • Unlike alpha testing, the developer is generally not present • Therefore, the beta test is a "live" application of the software in an environment that cannot be controlled by the developer
  • 13. SYSTEM TESTING • Ultimately, software is incorporated with other system elements (e.g., hardware, people, information), and a series of system integration and validation tests are conducted • These tests fall outside the scope of the software process and are not conducted solely by software engineers • However, steps taken during software design and testing can greatly improve the probability of successful software integration in the larger system • A classic system testing problem is "finger-pointing” • This occurs when an error is uncovered, and each system element developer blames the other for the problem
  • 14. • System testing is actually a series of different tests whose primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer-based system • Here each test has a different purpose, all work to verify that system elements have been properly integrated and perform allocated functions • There are different types of System tests that can be performed given here: • Recovery Testing • Security Testing • Stress Testing • Performance Testing
  • 15. Recovery Testing • Computer Based Systems must recover from faults and resume processing within a pre-specified time • Sometimes, a system must be fault tolerant, that is, processing faults must not cause overall system function to cease • In other cases, a system failure must be corrected within a specified period of time or severe economic damage will occur • Recovery testing is a system test that forces the software to fail in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed • If recovery is automatic (performed by the system itself), re- initialization, check pointing mechanisms, data recovery, and restart are evaluated for correctness • If recovery requires human intervention, the mean-time-to-repair (MTTR) is evaluated to determine whether it is within acceptable limits.
  • 16. Security Testing • Computer-based system that manages sensitive information or causes actions that can improperly harm (or benefit) individuals is a target for improper or illegal penetration • hackers who attempt to penetrate systems for sport, disgruntled employees who attempt to penetrate for revenge, dishonest individuals who attempt to penetrate for illicit personal gain • Security testing attempts to verify that protection mechanisms built into a system, in fact, protect it from improper penetration or Not
  • 17. Security Testing • During security testing, the tester plays the role(s) of the individual who desires to penetrate the system • The tester may attempt to acquire passwords through external clerical means, may attack the system with custom software designed to breakdown any defenses that have been constructed • may overwhelm the system, thereby denying service to others may purposely cause system errors, hoping to penetrate during recovery • may browse through insecure data, hoping to find the key to system entry • Given enough time and resources, good security testing will ultimately penetrate a system • The role of the system designer is to make penetration cost more than the value of the information that will be obtained.
  • 18. Stress Testing • Stress tests are designed to confront programs with abnormal situations • The tester who performs stress testing asks: • "How high can we crank this up before it fails? • “Stress testing executes a system in a manner that demands resources in abnormal quantity, frequency, or volume • E.g. Special tests may be designed that generate ten interrupts per second, when one or two is the average rate, • Input data rates may be increased by an order of magnitude to determine how input functions will respond, • Test cases that require maximum memory or other resources are executed,
  • 19. Stress Testing • 4) Test cases that may cause thrashing in a virtual operating system are designed • 5) Test cases that may cause excessive hunting for disk-resident data are created. • Essentially, the tester attempts to break the program • A variation of stress testing is a technique called sensitivity testing • Sometimes, a very small range of data contained within the bounds of valid data for a program may cause extreme erroneous processing or profound performance degradation • Sensitivity testing attempts to uncover data combinations within valid input classes that may cause instability or improper processing.
  • 20. Performance Testing • For real-time and embedded systems, software that provides required function but does not conform to performance requirements is unacceptable • Performance testing is designed to test the run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system • Performance testing occurs throughout all steps in the testing process • Even at the unit level, the performance of an individual module may be assessed as white-box tests are conducted.
  • 21. Performance Testing • However, it is not until all system elements are fully integrated that the true performance of a system can be ascertained • Performance tests are often coupled with stress testing and usually require both hardware and software instrumentation • That is, it is often necessary to measure resource utilization (e.g., processor cycles) in an exacting fashion • External instrumentation can monitor execution intervals, log events (e.g., interrupts) as they occur, and sample machine states on a regular basis • By instrumenting a system, the tester can uncover situations that lead to degradation and possible system failure