SlideShare a Scribd company logo

Immobilisation of PCA.pdf

A BRIEF OUTLOOK ON PGA IMMOBILISATION WITH FEW LITERATURE CITATIONS

1 of 9
Download to read offline
Immobilisation of Penicillin G Acylase
Dr Sumitha
J

Associate Professo
r

JBAS College for Women,Chennai-18
Penicillin G Acylase(PGA)
This enzyme hydrolyzes penicillin G into phenyl acetic acid and 6-amino
penicillanic acid (6-APA). Both natural and semi-synthetic penicillins contain
6-aminopenicillanic acid
.

This enzyme is the starting material for the manufacture of penicillin
derivatives, which are the most widely used β-lactam antibiotics
.

Based on their substrate speci
fi
city, penicillin acylases have been classi
fi
ed into
three groups viz., penicillin G-acylases, penicillin-V-acylases and ampicillin
acylases
Penicillin G Acylase(PGA)
Penicillin acylases are involved in the industrial production of semi synthetic
penicillins and cephalosporins, which remains the most widely used group of
antibiotics
.

Semi synthetic pencillins exhibit better properties such as increased stability,
easier absorption and fewer side e
ff
ects. Penicillin G and V and represent a
practical solution to the problem of adaptive microbial resistance to antibiotics
.

Both penicillin G acylase and penicillin V acylase used for industrial production
of 6-APA
PVA Vs PGA
Penicillin V acylase has some advantages over penicillin G acylase
 

better stability
 

higher conversion rates
.

Penicillin V acylase Limitation
s

non-availability of suitable bacterial strains
 

cost issues
Immobilisation of PGA
PGA enzyme preparation has to be active, robust and reusable.
 

The most e
ff
ective way to enhance stability for many enzymes is to immobilize
them onto solid support which also o
ff
ers re-use and cost-e
ff
ectiveness
Immobilisation of PGA
The enzyme preparation with the highest speci
fi
c activity (322 U/g dry matrix
at 40°C and pH 8.0) was obtained by covalent binding of penicillin acylase to
vinyl copolymers (Dhal et al., 1985)
 

Singh et al. (1988) used double entrapment methodology for the immobilization
of penicillin acylase from E. coli NCIM 2563 on agar-polyacrylamide resins
.

Danzig et al. (1993) used penicillin acylase produced by genetically engineered
E. coli and immobilized it on polyacrylamide carrier for improved 6-APA
production.
Ad

Recommended

Production of tetracyclin and cephalosporin
Production of tetracyclin and cephalosporinProduction of tetracyclin and cephalosporin
Production of tetracyclin and cephalosporinSamsuDeen12
 
microbial production of antibiotics penicillin and streptomycin
microbial production of antibiotics penicillin and streptomycinmicrobial production of antibiotics penicillin and streptomycin
microbial production of antibiotics penicillin and streptomycinsubhananthini jeyamurugan
 
Production of lipases and cellulase
Production of lipases and cellulaseProduction of lipases and cellulase
Production of lipases and cellulaseponkalaivani s
 
Cloning vectors based on m13 and lambda bacteriophage
Cloning vectors based on m13 and lambda bacteriophageCloning vectors based on m13 and lambda bacteriophage
Cloning vectors based on m13 and lambda bacteriophageRashmi Rawat
 

More Related Content

What's hot

Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Protease
Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and ProteaseIndustrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Protease
Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Proteasevarun yadav
 
Subunit and peptide vaccine
Subunit and peptide vaccineSubunit and peptide vaccine
Subunit and peptide vaccineAdnya Desai
 
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technology
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technologyTaq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technology
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technologyneeru02
 
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin c
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin cProduction of ascorbic acid/vitamin c
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin cChaitanyaVasu
 
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acidIndustrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acidEsam Yahya
 
Bioproduction of Glutamic Acid
Bioproduction of Glutamic AcidBioproduction of Glutamic Acid
Bioproduction of Glutamic AcidPratik Parikh
 
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda HARINATHA REDDY ASWARTHA
 
Industrial production of penicillin
Industrial production of penicillinIndustrial production of penicillin
Industrial production of penicillinNischitha R
 
Glutamic acid fermentation
Glutamic acid fermentationGlutamic acid fermentation
Glutamic acid fermentationNOMI KhanS
 
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore
 
Recombinant vaccines
Recombinant vaccinesRecombinant vaccines
Recombinant vaccinesJaimurti
 
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Kiran Kumar
 

What's hot (20)

Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Protease
Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and ProteaseIndustrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Protease
Industrial production of Riboflavin, Amylase and Protease
 
Subunit and peptide vaccine
Subunit and peptide vaccineSubunit and peptide vaccine
Subunit and peptide vaccine
 
Interferons
InterferonsInterferons
Interferons
 
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technology
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technologyTaq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technology
Taq dna polymerase - enzyme used in PCR amplification technology
 
Cloning vectors
Cloning vectorsCloning vectors
Cloning vectors
 
Production of interferons
Production of interferonsProduction of interferons
Production of interferons
 
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin c
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin cProduction of ascorbic acid/vitamin c
Production of ascorbic acid/vitamin c
 
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acidIndustrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
Industrial production of chemical acids glutamic acid
 
Bioproduction of Glutamic Acid
Bioproduction of Glutamic AcidBioproduction of Glutamic Acid
Bioproduction of Glutamic Acid
 
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda
Bacteriophage T4 and Bacteriophage lambda
 
Industrial production of penicillin
Industrial production of penicillinIndustrial production of penicillin
Industrial production of penicillin
 
P bluescript
P bluescriptP bluescript
P bluescript
 
Expression vectors
Expression vectorsExpression vectors
Expression vectors
 
Glutamic acid fermentation
Glutamic acid fermentationGlutamic acid fermentation
Glutamic acid fermentation
 
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...
Streptokinase by Dr.U.Srinivasa, Professor and Head, Srinivas college of phar...
 
Glucose isomerase
Glucose isomeraseGlucose isomerase
Glucose isomerase
 
Recombinant vaccines
Recombinant vaccinesRecombinant vaccines
Recombinant vaccines
 
Phi x 174 phage.
Phi x 174 phage.Phi x 174 phage.
Phi x 174 phage.
 
Microbial polysachharides
Microbial polysachharidesMicrobial polysachharides
Microbial polysachharides
 
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
Downstream processing - industrial microbiology
 

More from Dr Sumitha Jagadibabu

Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation Process
Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation ProcessDownstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation Process
Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation ProcessDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
DSP——--Flotation and Solvent extraction
DSP——--Flotation and  Solvent extractionDSP——--Flotation and  Solvent extraction
DSP——--Flotation and Solvent extractionDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
Downstream processing -Introduction and Process
Downstream processing -Introduction and ProcessDownstream processing -Introduction and Process
Downstream processing -Introduction and ProcessDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & Diagnosis
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & DiagnosisPox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & Diagnosis
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & DiagnosisDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & Parvo
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & ParvoTypes-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & Parvo
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & ParvoDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentation
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentationParvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentation
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentationDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
DNA Virus Comparison and Characteristics
DNA Virus Comparison and CharacteristicsDNA Virus Comparison and Characteristics
DNA Virus Comparison and CharacteristicsDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdf
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdfStructure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdf
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdfDr Sumitha Jagadibabu
 

More from Dr Sumitha Jagadibabu (20)

Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation Process
Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation ProcessDownstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation Process
Downstream processing-Industrial Centrifugation Process
 
DSP——--Flotation and Solvent extraction
DSP——--Flotation and  Solvent extractionDSP——--Flotation and  Solvent extraction
DSP——--Flotation and Solvent extraction
 
Downstream processing -Introduction and Process
Downstream processing -Introduction and ProcessDownstream processing -Introduction and Process
Downstream processing -Introduction and Process
 
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & Diagnosis
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & DiagnosisPox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & Diagnosis
Pox Virus-Pathogenesis Immunity & Diagnosis
 
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & Parvo
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & ParvoTypes-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & Parvo
Types-DNA virus Pox,HPV,Adeno,HHV & Parvo
 
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentation
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentationParvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentation
Parvovirus-Pathogenicity and Clinical presentation
 
DNA Virus Comparison and Characteristics
DNA Virus Comparison and CharacteristicsDNA Virus Comparison and Characteristics
DNA Virus Comparison and Characteristics
 
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdf
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdfStructure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdf
Structure,Function and Properties of Immune cells.pdf
 
ARBO Viruses.pdf
ARBO Viruses.pdfARBO Viruses.pdf
ARBO Viruses.pdf
 
Corona Virus.pptx
Corona Virus.pptxCorona Virus.pptx
Corona Virus.pptx
 
Rhabdo Virus.pptx
Rhabdo Virus.pptxRhabdo Virus.pptx
Rhabdo Virus.pptx
 
Rubella Virus.pptx
Rubella Virus.pptxRubella Virus.pptx
Rubella Virus.pptx
 
HAI.pdf
HAI.pdfHAI.pdf
HAI.pdf
 
HICC.pdf
HICC.pdfHICC.pdf
HICC.pdf
 
Antiviral_Drugs.ppt
Antiviral_Drugs.pptAntiviral_Drugs.ppt
Antiviral_Drugs.ppt
 
TOXINS.pptx
TOXINS.pptxTOXINS.pptx
TOXINS.pptx
 
Paramyxovirus.pptx
Paramyxovirus.pptxParamyxovirus.pptx
Paramyxovirus.pptx
 
Orthomyxovirus.pptx
Orthomyxovirus.pptxOrthomyxovirus.pptx
Orthomyxovirus.pptx
 
Microbial Pathogenicity.pptx
Microbial Pathogenicity.pptxMicrobial Pathogenicity.pptx
Microbial Pathogenicity.pptx
 
Electrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptxElectrophoresis.pptx
Electrophoresis.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANK
REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANKREJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANK
REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANKAmanDohre
 
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Ahmed Metwaly
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsAlaaOraby6
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NineSérgio Sacani
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...Advanced-Concepts-Team
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Naresh Gupta
 
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture useeEnto-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture useeDrAnita Sharma
 
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Nan Yang Academy of Sciences
 
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...Abhinav S
 
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
Study  of X  - Ray Spectra and its typesStudy  of X  - Ray Spectra and its types
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its typestanishashukla147
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English BrochureInsilico Gen
 
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother PlantsRootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother PlantsAmanDohre
 
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usescommercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usesSilpa Selvaraj
 
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationChemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationayuqroyjohn85
 
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesA galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesSérgio Sacani
 
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptxconceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptxAnggeComeso
 
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsPeter Coles
 
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsPeter Coles
 

Recently uploaded (20)

REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANK
REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANKREJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANK
REJUVENATION THROUGH PROGENY ORCHAD AND SCION BANK
 
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
Introduction to Chromatography (Column chromatography)
 
Introduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cellsIntroduction to the research of stem cells
Introduction to the research of stem cells
 
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet NinePlaneta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
Planeta 9 - A Pan-STARRS1 Search for Planet Nine
 
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional WisdomResearch methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
Research methods in ethnobotany- Exploring Traditional Wisdom
 
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
The ExoGRAVITY project - observations of exoplanets from the ground with opti...
 
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
Salesforce Starter Package Presentation.
 
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture useeEnto-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee
Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee
 
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHESINTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY WITH DIVERSE TAXONOMIC APPROACHES
 
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
Earth and Planetary Science | Volume 01 | Issue 01 | April 2022
 
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...LIGHT  Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
LIGHT Community Medicine LIGHT IS A SOURCE OF ENERGY THERE ARE TWO TYPE OF S...
 
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
Study  of X  - Ray Spectra and its typesStudy  of X  - Ray Spectra and its types
Study of X - Ray Spectra and its types
 
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
2024 Insilicogen Company English Brochure
 
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother PlantsRootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants
Rootstock scion and Interstock Relationship Selection of Elite Mother Plants
 
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its usescommercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
commercial production of cellulase enzyme and its uses
 
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanationChemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
Chemistry chapter 1 solutions detailed explanation
 
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxiesA galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
A galactic microquasar mimicking winged radio galaxies
 
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptxconceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx
conceptofatomic#number Physical Science second sem week 1.pptx
 
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
 
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of AstrophysicsOpen Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
Open Access Publishing in Astrophysics and the Open Journal of Astrophysics
 

Immobilisation of PCA.pdf

  • 1. Immobilisation of Penicillin G Acylase Dr Sumitha J Associate Professo r JBAS College for Women,Chennai-18
  • 2. Penicillin G Acylase(PGA) This enzyme hydrolyzes penicillin G into phenyl acetic acid and 6-amino penicillanic acid (6-APA). Both natural and semi-synthetic penicillins contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid . This enzyme is the starting material for the manufacture of penicillin derivatives, which are the most widely used β-lactam antibiotics . Based on their substrate speci fi city, penicillin acylases have been classi fi ed into three groups viz., penicillin G-acylases, penicillin-V-acylases and ampicillin acylases
  • 3. Penicillin G Acylase(PGA) Penicillin acylases are involved in the industrial production of semi synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins, which remains the most widely used group of antibiotics . Semi synthetic pencillins exhibit better properties such as increased stability, easier absorption and fewer side e ff ects. Penicillin G and V and represent a practical solution to the problem of adaptive microbial resistance to antibiotics . Both penicillin G acylase and penicillin V acylase used for industrial production of 6-APA
  • 4. PVA Vs PGA Penicillin V acylase has some advantages over penicillin G acylase better stability higher conversion rates . Penicillin V acylase Limitation s non-availability of suitable bacterial strains cost issues
  • 5. Immobilisation of PGA PGA enzyme preparation has to be active, robust and reusable. The most e ff ective way to enhance stability for many enzymes is to immobilize them onto solid support which also o ff ers re-use and cost-e ff ectiveness
  • 6. Immobilisation of PGA The enzyme preparation with the highest speci fi c activity (322 U/g dry matrix at 40°C and pH 8.0) was obtained by covalent binding of penicillin acylase to vinyl copolymers (Dhal et al., 1985) Singh et al. (1988) used double entrapment methodology for the immobilization of penicillin acylase from E. coli NCIM 2563 on agar-polyacrylamide resins . Danzig et al. (1993) used penicillin acylase produced by genetically engineered E. coli and immobilized it on polyacrylamide carrier for improved 6-APA production.
  • 7. Immobilisation of PGA Chemical modi fi cation of immobilized penicillin acylase from E. coli has been reported with formaldehyde followed by sodium borohydride reduction. The derivative modi fi ed with formaldehyde and further reduced with borohydride was much more stable than the original unmodi fi ed preparation (Blanco and Guisan, 1989 ) The use of copolymers of acrylonitrile, vinyl acetate, butylacrylate (Bryjak et al., 1993), and ethyl acrylate (Bryjak et al., 1989) with cross-linking agents such as divinylbenzene or ethylenedimethacrylate (Bryjak and Noworyta, 1993) has been reported .
  • 8. Immobilisation of PGA The penicillin acylase immobilized on copolymers of butyl acrylates and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate had a signi fi cantly enhanced reaction rate compared to penicillin hydrolysis by the native enzyme. (Bryjak and Noworyta, 1993). Fonseca et al. (1993) used grace silica gel carrier activated by a silanization method for immobilization of penicillin acylase. Banerjee and Debnath (2007) described the continuous production of 6-APA in a packed column reactor by using agarose immobilized penicillin acylase as a block polymer. The strain Escherichia coli ATCC 11105 was used as enzyme source and penicillin G as substrate.
  • 9. Application Of PA Synthesis of 6-APA production of pure chiral compounds Synthesis of dipeptides Decolourization of dyes Biosensor s