More Than Points: Architecting Engagement Through Game Design Thinking

5,462 views

Published on

The buzz surrounding gamification as an engagement platform is reaching critical mass in our industry with the bulk of attention directed to shallow, superficial layers of points & badges but there’s more to unlock. Lot’s more.

By considering the psychological underpinnings of engagement driven by intrinsic player motivation, meaningful interactions and yes - mechanics, dynamics and aesthetics we can create a framework for architecting passionate user engagement, guiding behavior and ethically satisfying business goals.

Published in: Design, Technology

More Than Points: Architecting Engagement Through Game Design Thinking

  1. 1. MORE THAN POINTS GridGame Design Thinking SystemsArchitecting Engagement ThroughDustin DiTommaso | @DU5TBIN
  2. 2. WHAT IS A GAME?
  3. 3. WHAT IS A GAME?A Structured, Voluntary Experience withRules and Goals that is Engaging and Fun.
  4. 4. FUN!!??!!?? O RLY??!!??
  5. 5. FARMVILLE
  6. 6. THREE THEORIES OF FUN RAPH KOSTER – A THEORY OF FUN “Fun comes from Learning and Mastery” NICOLE LAZZARO – FOUR KEYS TO FUN Hard Fun, Easy Fun, People Fun, Serious Fun MARC LEBLANC – EIGHT KINDS OF FUN
  7. 7. EIGHT KINDS OF FUN SENSATION: FELLOWSHIP: Game as sense-pleasure Game as social framework FANTASY: DISCOVERY: Game as make-believe Game as uncharted territory NARRATIVE: EXPRESSION: Game as unfolding story Game as soap box CHALLENGE: SUBMISSION: Game as obstacle course Game as mindless pastime
  8. 8. WHAT IS GAMIFICATION?
  9. 9. WHAT IS GAMIFICATION?“The process of using game design thinking and mechanics toengage audiences and solve problems.”
  10. 10. WHAT IS GAMIFICATION?“The process of using game design thinking and mechanics toengage audiences and solve problems.”PROBLEMS?
  11. 11. WHAT IS GAMIFICATION?“The process of using game design thinking and mechanics toengage audiences and solve problems.”PROBLEMS?PERSONAL: Self Improvement - Lose Weight, Learn SomethingSOCIETAL: Reduce Speeding, Encourage Eco-Friendly Behaviors,In uence CharitySYSTEM: Obtain Data, Direct User Behavior, Teach Something,Quell Trolls
  12. 12. GAMIFICATION IS NOTThe adding of a super cial layer of points and badges to yourproduct or service.
  13. 13. GAMIFICATION IS NOTThe adding of a super cial layer of points and badges to yourproduct or service.A PANACEA. It cannot right the fundamental wrongs of aproduct set.
  14. 14. GAMIFICATION IS NOTThe adding of a super cial layer of points and badges to yourproduct or service.A PANACEA. It cannot right the fundamental wrongs of aproduct set.A GAME. (Necessarily)
  15. 15. GAMIFICATION IS NOTThe adding of a super cial layer of points and badges to yourproduct or service.A PANACEA. It cannot right the fundamental wrongs of aproduct set.A GAME. (Necessarily)FUN. (Necessarily)
  16. 16. SO, WHY GAMIFICATION?Game Design techniques are another tool you can use alongwith all the other methods we employ as Experience Designersto craft compelling experiences and products.The goals of gami cation are to achieve higher levels ofengagement, change behaviors and stimulate innovation.+ Game Mechanics are Levers to Drive User Behavior.
  17. 17. SO, WHY GAMIFICATION?Game Design techniques are another tool you can use alongwith all the other methods we employ as Experience Designersto craft compelling experiences and products.The goals of gami cation are to achieve higher levels ofengagement, change behaviors and stimulate innovation.+ Game Mechanics are Levers to Drive User Behavior.GARTNER REPORT (MAY 2011)“50% of all Innovation process will be gami ed by 2015”“70% of the Global 2000 will have a gami ed app by theysame year”“A gami cation company will exist that is big as Facebook.”
  18. 18. FOURSQUARE 8 MILLION USERS Daily Check-ins/User dropped from 0.5 to 0.34 when growing from 2 to 8 million accountsA set. (foursquare 2011) 21% check in for the mayorship challenge and achievements 54% check in ONLY when discounts are involved
  19. 19. MOTIVATION, ENGAGEMENT & MEANINGFUL INTERACTIONSGames are voluntary, leisure activities. If forced to play, it is no longer a game.User must be intrinsically motivated to engage with the game.Users subconsciously ask themselves "Is this activity worth my time?Does it gain me anything useful?"CREATE MEANING: Tie goals & rewards to goals of user. [Mint Goals]Offer users opportunity to inject their personal goals into the system[buy a house, get out of debt, take a vacation]INTRINSIC TRUMPS EXTRINSIC MOTIVATIONSelf-Improvement, Community Recognition & Belonging,Productivity, Sense of Meaning and Contribution, Entertainment & FunExtrinsic Motivations are the mechanics of the game:Points, Levels, Badges, RewardsGAME DESIGNERS GOAL?1. Identify the core intrinsic motivation in the hearts of your users – Emotion Drives Action and Engagement2. Build an Engagement Framework that supports this
  20. 20. FLOWFlow is completely focused motivation.It is a single-minded immersionand represents perhaps the ultimate inharnessing emotions in the service ofperforming and learning.- Mihály Csíkszentmihályi
  21. 21. DESIGNING FOR FLOW1. Provide Clear Goals, challenges anddirection containing just the right level ofdif culty.2. Adjust the challenge based onchanging skill and mastery.3. Unfold the challenges over time inconjunction with developing mastery.
  22. 22. A NEW WAY OF SEEINGUSABILITY vs. GAME DESIGNUSABILITYMake it Easy for the UserRemove obstacles in the way of user goalsMake it Impossible to FailClear Next StepsCan’t Miss NavigationDesign for the perpetual intermediate [Cooper]GAME DESIGNDesign for Thinking, Challenge and Problem SolvingProvide obstacles for the user to overcomeOpportunities for FailureEncourage Exploration and DiscoveryPath to Mastery requires design focus on noobs & experts
  23. 23. USABILITY vs. GAME DESIGNUSABILITYMake it Easy for the UserRemove obstacles in the way of user goalsMake it Impossible to FailClear Next StepsCan’t Miss NavigationDesign for the perpetual intermediate [Cooper]GAME DESIGN
  24. 24. HOW DO WE EFFECTIVELY APPLY GAMEDESIGN THINKING TO CRAFT ENGAGNINGEXPERIENCES FOR OUR USERS?
  25. 25. RESEARCH DRIVES DECISIONSCRITICAL STAKEHOLDER QUESTIONS:1. What is the main reason for Gamifying your product / service?2. How does it bene t the user?3. Will they enjoy it?PLAYER QUESTIONS:Who are your Users? What are their needs and goals? Why are they Playing?What is their Primary Play Style? (Solo, Competitive, Cooperative)Who are they Playing With?What Social Actions do they nd enjoyable – and why?What Metrics do they care about?BUSINESS QUESTIONS:What Actions do you want your players to take?What are the goals of the business?How do you get the users to ful ll those goals?
  26. 26. RESEARCH DRIVES DECISIONSPOSSIBLE DIFFERENCES FROM UCD METHODSWhen conducting user research and creating player personas pay attention to:Demographic Data: Gender, Age, Geographical DataMotivations: Goals aren’t enough, we need to get to underlying motivation. Motivationscontain the emotions that drive goals. Why would they use the product? What are theyhoping to get out of it?Online Identity: How do they interact online? Do they prefer anonymity? How closely dothey blend real-life Identity with Online and Game identity?Frustrations: What are their current frustrations? How might Gami cation remedy this?
  27. 27. BARTLE’S PLAYER TYPES
  28. 28. EXPLORERGets positive experience by nding new things in world around them(Secrets, Unlocks, Easter Eggs)LIKES TO:Find own route around the game systemEngage in Open-Ended PlayLearn or acquire information during gameplayAchieve their Goals in their own way on their own time (Autonomous play)DESIGN CHALLENGE:Prefers to play at own pace. Likes to customize their experience and feels restrictedwhen game forces them to move on before they are ready.
  29. 29. ACHIEVERMotivated by a Sense of Progress and Mastery of the SystemLIKES TO:Measure Objectives in the GameMake Progress towards objectivesGain Recognition for their successesComplete Collections of RewardsAcquire Unique or Rare Objects or StatusAnalyze and Understand Game MechanicsDESIGN CHALLENGE:Can be hard to design proper level of challenge for these folks. Flow State.
  30. 30. SOCIALIZERPlay games mostly to connect with other peopleLIKES TO:Gain Friends and In uence PeopleJoin or Lead GroupsOrganize Cooperative ActivitiesComment, Share, AwardBe LikedGain PrestigeDESIGN CHALLENGE:Building a sustainable community for interaction among players
  31. 31. KILLERSimilar to Achiever, except play Win/Lose game and want to show others”Look at Me, I Won!”LIKES TO:CompeteWinShow-OffTrash Talk, TauntDESIGN CHALLENGE:Hitting the right dif culty levelKeeping them in Check from Hacking the System or Disrupting the Community
  32. 32. CONSIDER THE CONTINUUM
  33. 33. QUICK TIPS FOR ENGAGEMENTENGAGEMENT IS A JOURNEYDesign the Experience Over TimeCreate Journey Maps (Timelines of player actions, reactions & emotions)What does that Journey Towards Mastery look like?Get In, Get Busy, Tell People, Come BackONBOARDINGFocus on N00B and First Time ExperienceThe First 60 seconds are crucialGuide the User - N00B Can’t LoseAction / Reward / Action / Action / Reward / Register / Invite FriendsGIVE THEN GETProvide Value immediately when users arrive.Give them the opportunity to engage, personalize and express preferences beforeasking them to register.
  34. 34. QUICK TIPS FOR ENGAGEMENTPICK THE RIGHT REWARDS AND FEEDBACKKnow your audience intimately and create enough Juicy Feedback for all levels ofthe Journey (N00B, Regular, Master)Light the Path of the Journey with Progress MechanicsAchievable short term goals that work towards overarching long term goalsSOCIAL HOOKSIf you’ve created the RIGHT Rewards/Achievements then your Players will WANT toshare their Status with others.DESIGN ETHICALLYAddiction is not the same as EngagementThere is certainly ‘Click-Whir’ Behavioral Psych at work behind many mechanics.Use them Responsibly.
  35. 35. REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY100,000 POINTSNic Kelman, “Yes, but is it a game?” from Games : Required essay from a not sorequired book.Raph Koster, A Theory of Fun for Game Design : It’s not a game if it’s not funJesse Schell, The Art of Game Design – A Book of Lenses : Tactical and practicalJames Paul Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning & Literacy :Pairs nicely with Koster’s bookMarc Leblanc, 8 Types of Fun : Many implications for creating engagementarchitectures50,000 POINTSMarc Leblanc, MDA a Formal Process of Game Design : Origin of the Mechanics,Dynamics, Aesthetics frameworkMihály Csikszentmihályi, Flow – The Psychology of Optimal Experience : Manyimplications for creating engagement architecturesBateman, Boon, 21st Century Game Design : Pragmatic approach to Game Design
  36. 36. REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY25,000 POINTSNicole Lazzaro, Why We Play Games : Four Kinds of Fun / Keys to Player ExperienceDaniel Pink, Drive : Cliff Notes approach to MotivationJane McGonigal, Reality is Broken : Overeaching, Games will Save the World TreatiseZicherman, Linder, Game-Based Marketing : Enthusiastic, Behaviorist argument forGami cation Pro teering.BONUS POINTSBartle Player Type Quiz : http://www.game-on-book.com/bartleJesse Schell, DICE2010 Gamepocalypse Preso [VIDEO] : http://bit.ly/jT6LvDDaniel Pink, The Surprising Science of Motivation [VIDEO] : http://bit.ly/j7PVke
  37. 37. Dustin DiTommasoExperience Design DirectorEmail: dustin@madpow.netTwitter: @DU5TBIN

×