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Gamification - A Brief Introduction to Gamification


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The process of game-thinking and game mechanics to engage users and solve problems

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Gamification - A Brief Introduction to Gamification

  1. 1. GamificationA Brief Introduction to Gamification
  2. 2. What is Gamification? The process of game-thinking and game mechanics to engage users and solve problems.
  3. 3. Zichermann, G. (2013, February 5). Gamification of marketing webinar [Video file]. Retrieved from Gamification engages users and changes behavior with the best ideas from games, loyalty programs and behavioral economics - Gabe Zichermann
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification Although the term Gamification was already coined in 2002 by Nick Pelling, the subject has only recently found its way to the marketing world. In recent years Gamification has gained popularity in marketing as shown by several Gamification seminars that are organized around the world, such as the Gamification Summits in the United States and Australia. Some relatively new some websites are dedicated to the Gamification subject, such as and E-learning platform Coursera even offers a Gamification course from the University of Pennsylvania.
  5. 5. GAMIFICATION What’s and What’s not What gamification is. What gamification is not.  About changing behaviours.  Learning in a safe environment.  Gain experience through trail and error  Allowing for elements of failure.  Feedback, interaction, challenge, rules emotional reaction etc.  Badges, Points and Rewards.  Trivialization of learning.  New.  Foreign to Learning professionals.  Perfect for ever situation.  Easy to create.  Only Game mechanics. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO GAMIFICATION • Game elements (not full-games) • And game thinking (This doesn’t need to involve game technique, it’s more about the way games are designed and the idea behind games) • In a non-game environment (commercial as well as not-for- profit environments) • To increase target behaviour and engagement (target behaviour is central to this definition) A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification Gamification is about using
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO GAMIFICATION… For example A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification There’s Foldit.This is an initiative of several universities, research institutes and companies with the goal to find cures for diseases like HIV/aids and Cancer.To find these cures, it’s necessary to understand the protein structures of the human body. To understand this, the proteins are digitally folded into each other like a puzzle. Because there are so many different possible structures and computers aren’t good at solving these puzzles, this is a time consuming job for scientists. By making the folding of proteins an actual puzzle and adding scores, leader boards and achievements, people all over the world can now help solving this problem.This way several enzyme structures have been found, some of which help finding cures for diseases like HIV/aids.
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION TO GAMIFICATION… 1. Promotion 2. Employee productivity 3. Behaviour change 4. Loyalty 5. Education A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification Gamification can be used for:
  9. 9. KNOW YOUR PLAYER A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  10. 10. USER MOTIVATIONS 1. Achievement 2. Altruism 3. Reward 4. Self expression 5. Loss aversion 6. Status, competition and reputation A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  11. 11. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation through external factors: 1. Salary 2. Bonuses 3. Promotions 4. Deadlines 5. Consequences 6. Carrot and stick A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification It doesn’t work Devalues activity Feels controlling Misses the point Do not use Gamification as part of your compensation or bonus plan. It has better uses…
  12. 12. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Motivation through internal factors: 1. Desire to excel 2. Professional interest 3. Psychological need for play 4. Self-efficacy A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification You can help Autonomy Free, safe place to play and create
  13. 13. SAPS SAPS is an acronym that stands for status, access, power, and stuff. Simply put, it is a system of rewards. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification S A SP Status Status is the rank or level of a player. Players are often motivated by trying to reach a higher level or status. Access Access refers to opportunities that allow players to interact in a private or special way with your company or service. For example, allowing select players to view content before others, or to enter an exclusive contest. Power Power refers to special entitlements or rank that allow top players to be in positions of superiority over others. For instance, a highly ranked player who, based on his/her title, can donate virtual goods to help newer players in their quests. Stuff Stuff means tangible prizes given to players on completing quests or challenges. Zichermann identified stuff as the least motivating of all four options. Also, the cost of acquiring, managing and delivering these prizes should be weighed carefully. Rewards such as Badges and Points are used to elevate Status by showcasing the talents, expertise, and accomplishments of users.
  14. 14. MDA FRAMEWORK A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification In game design the Mechanics-Dynamics-Aesthetics (MDA) framework is a tool used to analyse games. The MDA framework is a post-mortem analysis of the elements of a game. It helps us use systems-thinking to describe the interplay of those game elements and apply them outside of games. Mechanics make up the functioning components of the game. At their core, they allow a designer ultimate control over the levers of the game, giving her the ability to guide player actions. Dynamics, meanwhile, are the player’s interactions with those mechanics. They determine what each player is doing in response to the mechanics of the system, both individually and with other players. Sometimes, game mechanics and game dynamics are used interchangeably, but they are markedly different. Finally, the aesthetics of the system are how the game makes the player feel during interaction. Game aesthetics can be viewed as the composite outcome of the mechanics and dynamics as they interact with and create emotions.
  15. 15. GAME MECHANICS The mechanics of a gamified system are made up of a series of tools that, when used correctly, promise to yield a meaningful response from the players. For our purposes, we’ll focus on some game elements: Points Points are important regardless of whether their accumulation is shared among players, or even between the designer and the player. When you first consider a point system, you might immediately think of a goal in a sporting event, redeemable points in a video game, or bonus points awarded to players for successfully completing special tasks within a game. Point System:  Experience points  Redeemable points  Skill points  Karma points  Reputation points Levels In most games, levels indicate progress— though they are not as exclusive in this role as they once were. For example, in the arcade game Ms. Pac-Man, levels are clearly expressed by the colour of the ghosts, the layout of the maze, and the kind of fruit that loops around the maze. Of course, designers of gamified experiences aren’t going to use traditional levels like those found in video games, but understanding them can add a powerful tool to your design. Levels serve as a marker for players to know where they stand in a gaming experience over time. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  16. 16. Badges A badge is a visual representation of some achievement within the gamified process. For game designers, badges are an excellent way to encourage social promotion of their products and services. Leaderboard The purpose of a leaderboard is to make simple comparisons like ranking system. Unsurprisingly, most people don’t need any explanation when they encounter a leader board. By default, we see an ordered list with a score beside each name, and we understand that we are looking at a ranking system. LeaderboardTypes: 1. The no-disincentive leaderboard 2. The infinite leaderboard A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification GAME MECHANICS…
  17. 17. Engagement loops A motivating emotion leads to player re-engagement, which leads to a social call to action, which loops back around to a motivating emotion. challenges/quests Challenges and quests give players direction for what to do within the world of the gamified experience. Also known as Challenges. Challenges usually implies a time limit or competition whereas Quests are meant to be a journey of obstacles a player must overcome. In World of Warcraft, players are given quests that require them to complete a set of tasks (e.g monster slaying, delivery). Check out Other Game Mechanics: A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification For novice player ofTwitter, the view of the engagement loop is as follows: - Motivating Emotion =Connecting and expressing - Player Re-Engagement = @mentions - Social call to action =Tweets - Visible Progress/Reward = Followers GAME MECHANICS…
  18. 18. Today's student will spend 10,000 hours playing computer and video games by the age of 21 - Jane McGonigal TED Talk -- Jane McGonigal: Gaming can make a better world (TED2010) GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING
  19. 19. Gamification in e-Learning means the integration of game mechanics or dynamics, into learning content, to create fun and engaging experiences. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING
  20. 20. BENEFITS OF GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  21. 21. BENEFITS OF GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING… A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  22. 22. GAMIFICATION IN E-LEARNING STATS A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification
  23. 23. GAMIFICATION: CASE STUDIES More and more companies realise that games can be very powerful in changing human behaviour. Therefore it’s not surprising that companies like Foursquare, LinkedIn and incorporate game elements on their websites and in their services. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification To Foursquare it’s important that users share their location with their friends on a regular basis. When users do that, value is being created for everyone in their social network.Without that the platform – obviously – doesn’t have a lot of value to users. By having people earn badges when they check-in on special places or with a certain frequency, users are motivated to keep using Foursquare on a regular basis. The battle for mayorship in offices, bars and parks adds a competitive and social element that makes the behaviour stick. FOURSQUARE
  24. 24. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification FOURSQUARE… Points Tracking & Feedback Badges Goals, Rewards, Status Leaderboards Comparison , Competition Incentives Rewards
  25. 25. A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification FOURSQUARE… Game mechanics: points, badges, leadership board Motivation drivers: collecting, achievement Motivation driver: connecting
  26. 26. LINKEDIN A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification LinkedIn makes money by selling advertisements. Their ad inventory can be sold for a higher price when the ability to target these advertisements improves. If an ad exactly reaches the people that are in the advertisers’ target audience – and no one else – it’s worth a lot more than when it has a lot of waste. This makes it important for LinkedIn to know their users very well, and one way to get to know them is for users to fill in their profiles extensively. By acknowledging users with ‘strong profiles’ as Experts or All-Stars, people will be motivated to update their profiles regularly and fill out any information that’s missing. Another neat trick is the way the profile strength balloon works: It can never be fully filled.There’s always room for improvement. Game mechanics: Progress indicator Motivation driver: Feedback
  27. 27. LINKEDIN… A Brief IntroductionTo Gamification Game mechanics: network indicator Motivation driver: Connecting, feedback Game mechanics: endorsement buttons (communal discovery) Motivation driver: Achievement, feedback
  28. 28. CONTACT INFO Pune, Maharashtra, India +91 8805012468 SOURCES  Gamification by Design by Gabe Zichermann and Christopher Cunningham  Introduction to Gamification by Piet van den Boer