Data Analysis & Language ComparisonSpanish English
L1 ImpactO Distinct languages but share patterns of speech acquisition.O Similar phonology but difficulty for Spanish speakers when pronouncing sounds lacking in Spanish.O Distinct vowel sounds in Spanish become an array of sounds in English.O Intonation patterns are carried over from Spanish to English.O False cognates impact interlanguage as well as words with multiple meanings.O Absence of auxiliary verbs when Spanish speakers speak or write (Shoebottom, 2011).
Examples of Jorge’s errorsDESCRIPTION OF ERROR JORGES ERROR EXAMPLE1. Omitted s on a plural noun I am 23 year old.2. Omission of a preposition I from Texas.3. No [k] pronunciation. Texas (ˈtksəs) ɛ4. Improper preposition Now I live in Main Street.5. Improper tense: needs past In Mexico I graduate.tense -ed6. Improper tense: needs I never have English.irregular past tense.7. Improper [ɪ] pronunciation English8. Preposition not needed/ or *ing I am work in the area.to be added to verb to make agerund.9. Omission of a preposition I work the afternoon.10. Omission of a preposition I not so well11. Added unnecessary -s to a verb I comes here.12. Double subject My amigos, they help.
Errors continued13. Substitution of English My amigos, they help.word14. Improper [ð] pronunciation They help15. Added unnecessary -s to a I likes work.verb16. Contraction is not I don like cold.completed17. Contraction not completed.I don know snow.18. Wrong word choice I dont know snow.19. Improper [ð] pronunciation They fun.20. Missing verb They fun.21. Improper verb. You is nice.22. Contraction not completedYou welcome
As a beginning language learner,Jorge had difficulty withpronunciation. He could notdistinguish phonology between thetwo languages. He did not hear adifference between the pronunciationof dare-there. They are phoneticallysimilar. He also stated several wordswithout the contractions. Spanishspeakers are not accustomed topronouncing the final “t”.
Instructional ImplicationsO Jorge will continue to learn through collaboration with English speakers (Garcia, 1991). O Discussion & conversation with friends & co- workers will help Jorge with pronunciation.O An adult ELL course would be helpful in Jorge’s language acquisition.O The most beneficial instruction will come through reading (Freeman and Freeman, 2004).O He will learn vocabulary and consciously recognize words. O Reading the newspaper
ReferencesO Bilinguistics Inc. (2007) Typical Development of Speech in Spanish in Comparison to English. www.Bilinguistics.com.O Freeman, D. and Freeman Y. (2004). Essential Linguistics: What You Need to Know to Teach Reading, ESL, Spelling, Phonics, and Grammar. Heinneman.O Garcia, Eugene E.(1991). The Education of Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Students: Effective Instructional Practices. UC Berkeley: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/2793n11sO Shoebottom, Paul. (2011) The Differences between Spanish and English. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Web site: http://www.esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/spanish.htm