G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Overview
Q1(b) is out of  25 marks  and you have  30 minutes  to write it. You have to  theoretically  evaluate  ONE  of your cours...
<ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul...
Aims/Objectives   <ul><li>To reinforce the basic media language that create meaning in texts.  </li></ul><ul><li>To have a...
Importance of media language  <ul><li>Every medium has its own ‘language’ – or combination of languages – that it uses to ...
<ul><li>Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules.  Each form of communication- - whethe...
<ul><li>Understanding the grammar, syntax and metaphor system of media language,  especially the language of sounds and vi...
Denotation, Connotation and Myth <ul><li>In semiotics, denotation and connotation are terms describing the relationship be...
<ul><li>Barthes (1977)  argued that in film connotation can be (analytically) distinguished from denotation.  </li></ul><u...
Making connections? <ul><li>Evaluating  media language  is an evaluation of all  micro elements  and how they have created...
Micro Elements: Mise-en-Scene <ul><li>Mise-en-scène constitutes the key aspect of the pre-production phase of the film and...
Aspects of Mise-en-Scene – video and print style <ul><li>Location -  settings, set-design and iconography </li></ul><ul><l...
Micro Elements: Camerawork <ul><li>There are  Four  aspects to camerawork that you need to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>Link to Propp (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>The villain  — struggles against the hero.  </li></ul><ul><li>The donor  — ...
Micro Elements: Editing <ul><li>Editing is a post-production technique in which the footage shot during production is cut ...
<ul><li>Long Takes : takes of an unusually long length. </li></ul><ul><li>Short Takes : takes that only last for a few sec...
Continuity <ul><li>Establishing/Re-establishing Shot </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions . </li></ul><ul><li>The 180° Line Rule ...
<ul><li>According to  Pam   Cook  (1985), the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have: </li></ul><ul><li>  Line...
Non-Continuity <ul><li>Montage Sequence . </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Back/Forward . </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis . </li></ul><u...
Micro Elements: Sound <ul><li>Sound is  layered on tracks  in order to create meaning. On Premiere you used  multiple audi...
<ul><li>Diegetic Sound ,  which refers to sound whose origin is to be located in the story world such as the voices of the...
<ul><li>Diegetic sound includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Effects  and in some cases… </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Non- Diegetic sound includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Music </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Over/Narration  </li></ul...
<ul><li>“ Media is communication”.  Discuss the ways that you have used media language to create meanings in one of your m...
<ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul...
Aims/Objectives   <ul><li>To reinforce basic audience theory. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how to ev...
Audiences <ul><li>Julian McDougall   (2009)  suggests that in the online age it is getting harder to conceive a media audi...
Is your text popular for a mass audience? <ul><li>Historically (until the 19th century, at any rate) the term 'popular' wa...
<ul><li>This leads into a further consideration, which is the definition of 'popular culture' as 'low' culture, something ...
<ul><li>Another definition of 'popular' is literally 'of the people',  a kind of 'folk' culture and this is an interesting...
<ul><li>What should be done in terms of your coursework is three things: </li></ul><ul><li>1. You must detail the target a...
Ien Ang (1991)  detailed that media producers have an imaginary entity in mind before the construction of a media product....
Ang (1991)  states that 'audiencehood is becoming an ever more multifaceted, fragmented and diversified repertoire of prac...
John Hartley (1987)  “institutions are obliged not only to speak about an audience, but –crucially, for them – to talk to ...
Hartley (1987)  also  suggests that institutions must produce “ invisible fictions of the audience which allow the institu...
<ul><li>Gaining Feedback from your Audience </li></ul><ul><li>You attempted to gain feedback from your target audience in ...
Audience Reception Theories: Passive and Active Audiences There are basically two different schools of thought concerning ...
<ul><li>The Frankfurt School’s Hypodermic Theory (1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>This Marxist theory, which was championed by th...
<ul><li>Criticisms Of   Hypodermic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t allow for resistance or rejection ...
<ul><li>‘ Passive’ audience/hypodermic theory are sometimes referred to overall as  ‘Media Effects Theory’ , i.e. the medi...
<ul><li>Moral Panics And Folk Devils </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Cohen in his book  Folk Devils And Moral Panics  (1972) def...
<ul><li>Pluralist Model and the Active Audience Theory   </li></ul><ul><li>This is the idea that the audience have an acti...
<ul><li>  So in media terms,  because the audience (society) is diverse , with different points of view, the  media  is in...
<ul><li>McQuail’s Uses And Gratifications Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis McQuail   (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion/Esc...
<ul><li>Parkin’s/Hall’s Audience Readings Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Parkin   (1972)  and later  Stuart Hall   (1980) ...
<ul><li>You must think about the meanings behind the text and how you encoded and they decoded (Hall, 1980) according to t...
<ul><li>“ Media texts will never be successful unless they are carefully constructed to target pre-established audience ne...
<ul><li>Use the F6/Lib books for specific, genre-related reading on audiences, eg Brigid Cherry writes in “Horror Zone” (2...
G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Narrative
Aims/Objectives •  To reinforce the key narrative theorists. •  To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your cour...
Narrative •  Tim O’Sullivan  (1998) argues that all media texts tell us some kind of story. • Media texts offer  a way of ...
3 important words… Narrative : The structure of a story. Diegesis : The fictional space and time implied by the narrative ...
The Structure Of The Classic Narrative <ul><li>According to  Pam Cook  (1985), the </li></ul><ul><li>standard Hollywood na...
Raymond Bellour <ul><li>I mention the point about the usefulness of redundancy, especially with reference to aud/genre. Be...
Tzvetan Todorov  (1977) Bulgarian structural linguist. He was interested in the way language is ordered to infer particula...
<ul><li>Stage 1: A point of stable  equilibrium , where everything is satisfied, calm and normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage ...
Todorov and your ending <ul><li>Think about the ‘restoration’/new equilibrium stage. Jay McRoy (writing in “Horror Zone” (...
Roland Barthes  (1977) Establishment  of plot or theme. This is then followed by the  development  of the problem, an  eni...
<ul><li>According to  Kate Domaille  (2001) every story </li></ul><ul><li>ever told can be fitted into one of  eight </li>...
<ul><li>Circe :  The Chase , the spider and the fly, the innocent and the victim e.g. The Terminator.  </li></ul><ul><li>F...
The Russian theorist  Vladimir Propp  (1928) studied the narrative structure of Russian Folk Tales. Propp concluded that r...
<ul><li>He also concluded that all the characters could be </li></ul><ul><li>resolved into only  seven character types  in...
When brought together and broken down into their constitute parts these myths can be used to formulate a  universal monomy...
<ul><li>Ordinary World  – the ordered world that the hero will choose (or be forced) to abandon. </li></ul><ul><li>Call To...
These structures are not unique to film but also advertising and news stories. In fact the structures presented are an  in...
Jonathan Culler (2001) describes narratology  as comprising many strands “ implicitly united in the recognition that narra...
Claude Lèvi-Strauss  (1958) his ideas about narrative amount to the fact that he believed all stories operated to certain ...
Levi-Strauss also looked deeper into the way that narrative were arranged in terms of themes within that were ultimately a...
“ Media texts rely on cultural experiences in order for audiences to easily make sense of narratives”.  Explain how you us...
Its useful to consider this for every topic The research outlined by Brigid Cherry in “Horror Zone” (2010) is useful here....
‘…  the concerns and interests of this group of horror fans centre around the desire for narrative continuation and more d...
Snakes on a Plane/Aud Feedback <ul><li>Consider how your narrative was constructed, and what role aud feedback played in t...
G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Genre
<ul><li>Aims/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce the concept of genre theory and key genre theorists. </li></ul><ul>...
What Is Genre? • ‘ Genre’ is a critical tool that helps us study texts and audience responses to texts by dividing them in...
All Genres have Subgenres   •  This means that they are divided up into more specific categories that allow audiences to i...
Generic Characteristics  across all texts share similar elements... 1.  Typical Mise-en-scène/Visual style (iconography, p...
Typical studios/production companies… 4.  Typical Personnel  (directors, producers, actors, stars, auteurs etc.). 5.  Typi...
What is the genre of your film opening? <ul><li>Social realism? </li></ul><ul><li>Thriller? </li></ul><ul><li>Urban? </li>...
Jason Mittell  (2001)  argues that  genres are cultural categories  that surpass the boundaries of media texts and operate...
Pleasure of genre for audiences •  Rick Altman  (1999) argues that genre offers audiences ‘a set of pleasures’. Emotional ...
The Strengths Of Genre Theory The main strength of genre theory is that everybody uses it and understands it  – media expe...
<ul><li>Genre Development and Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years genres develop and change as the wider socie...
Nicholas Abercrombie  (1996) suggests that  'the boundaries between genres are shifting and becoming more permeable' Aberc...
Genres are not fixed. They constantly change and evolve over time. David Buckingham  (1993) argues that  'genre is not... ...
In terms of your coursework... •  How we define a genre depends on our purposes  (Chandler, 2001). •  What was your purpos...
“ Media texts rely on audience knowledge of generic codes and conventions in order for them to create meaning”. Explain ho...
Genre conventions <ul><li>If you’re not clear on your genre’s history and development, and key conventions (you should hav...
<ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul...
Aims/Objectives   <ul><li>To reinforce basic representation theory. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how...
Representation - Definition <ul><li>How the media shows us things about society – but this is through careful mediation. H...
<ul><li>Richard Dyer (1983)  posed a few questions when analysing media representations in general. </li></ul><ul><li>1. W...
<ul><li>In terms of your coursework you will be looking at representation in terms of : </li></ul><ul><li>MARXISM </li></u...
<ul><li>1.   Ideologies and Representation (MARXISM) </li></ul><ul><li>A  hegemonic view   of society – fundamental inequa...
Ideology  – refers to a set of ideas which produces a partial and selective view of reality.  Notion of ideology entails w...
<ul><li>Rosalind Brunt (1992)  details that ideologies are never simply ideas in peoples’ heads but are indeed myths that ...
<ul><li>Michel Maffesoli (1985)  identified the idea of the  “urban tribe”  – members of these small groups tend to have s...
<ul><li>Masculinity and femininity are socially constructed.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas about gender are produced and reflec...
<ul><li>Particularly in relation to film –  objectification of women’s bodies  in the media has been a constant theme. </l...
<ul><li>John Berger  ‘ Ways Of Seeing’  ( 1972 ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Men act and women appear”. “Men look at women. Women ...
<ul><li>Jib Fowles (1996)  “in advertising, males gaze and females are gazed at”. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Messaris (1997)  ...
<ul><li>In Slasher movies the psychopath is finally stopped by a character, which  Carol J. Clover(1992),  calls the ‘ Fin...
<ul><li>To return to an earlier point, we must remember that the reading of our encoded representations is highly continge...
<ul><li>Ann Kaplan (1978) used the example of the film noir genre to argue that the largely negative (from a feminist pers...
3. POSTMODERNISM AND REPRESENTATIONS OF REALITY <ul><li>‘ In a media saturated world, the distinction between reality and ...
<ul><li>Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984)  and  Jean Baudrillard (1980)  share the belief that the idea of ‘truth’ needs to be ...
<ul><li>Baudrillard  discussed the concept of  hyperreality  – we inhabit a society that is no longer made up of any origi...
<ul><li>We can apply this to texts that claim to represent reality – social realist films?  </li></ul><ul><li>Merrin (2005...
<ul><li>We often judge a text’s realism against our own ‘situated culture’. What is ‘real’ can therefore become subjective...
4. Stereotypes? <ul><li>O’Sullivan et al (1998)  details that a stereotype is a label that involves a process of categoris...
<ul><li>First coined by  Walter Lippmann (1956)  the word stereotype wasn’t meant to be negative and was simply meant as a...
<ul><li>Orrin E. Klapp's (1962)  distinction between stereotypes and social types is helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Klapp defi...
<ul><li>Richard Dyer (1977)  suggests Klapp’s distinction can be reworked in terms of the types produced by different soci...
<ul><li>Tessa Perkins (1979)  says, however, that stereotyping is not a simple process. She identified that some of the ma...
<ul><li>Martin Barker (1989)  - stereotypes are condemned for misrepresenting the ‘real world’. (e.g. Reinforcing that the...
<ul><li>Dyer (1977)  details that if we are  to be told that we are going to see a film about an alcoholic then we will kn...
<ul><li>“ Representations in media texts are often simplistic and reinforce dominant ideologies so that audiences can make...
The other <ul><li>When considering representations ultimately we are often evaluating whether the type/category/individual...
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Q1b theory and MANGeR db edit mgoogan guide

  1. 1. G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Overview
  2. 2. Q1(b) is out of 25 marks and you have 30 minutes to write it. You have to theoretically evaluate ONE of your coursework pieces against one unseen media concept/area of theory: • Genre • Narrative • Representation • Audience • Media Language I recommend that you pick the product you want to analyse and stick to this for the exam. I recommend your film opening but am not being prescriptive. For you to succeed in this all notes must be prepared as if they are your revision notes for the exam – they must be detailed and precise enough to enable a reader to envision the scene/aspect you are referring to.
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1(b) Media Language </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Aims/Objectives <ul><li>To reinforce the basic media language that create meaning in texts. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against the media language that you used. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of media language <ul><li>Every medium has its own ‘language’ – or combination of languages – that it uses to communicate meaning. Television, for example, uses verbal and written language as well as the languages of moving images and sound. </li></ul><ul><li>We call these ‘languages’ because they use familiar codes and conventions that are generally understood. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules. Each form of communication- - whether newspapers, TV game shows or horror movies-- has its own creative language: scary music heightens fear, camera close-ups convey intimacy, big headlines signal significance. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Understanding the grammar, syntax and metaphor system of media language, especially the language of sounds and visuals which can reach beyond the rational to our deepest emotional core, increases our appreciation and enjoyment of media experiences as well as helps us to be less susceptible to manipulation. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g the example from Men’s Health is so transparent once </li></ul><ul><li>you know how to read a media </li></ul><ul><li>text (and you can’t ‘grow’ </li></ul><ul><li>muscle....) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Denotation, Connotation and Myth <ul><li>In semiotics, denotation and connotation are terms describing the relationship between the signifier and its signified . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Barthes (1977) argued that in film connotation can be (analytically) distinguished from denotation. </li></ul><ul><li>As John Fiske (1982) puts it “denotation is what is filmed, connotation is how it is filmed”. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Making connections? <ul><li>Evaluating media language is an evaluation of all micro elements and how they have created meaning to inform us about genre, narrative, representations/ ideology, targeting of audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>This requires us to use semiotic terminology to explain our encoding of elements and codes and conventions within our texts. </li></ul><ul><li>We must also remember to discuss the preferred meaning (Hall, 1980) that we wanted our audience to DECODE. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Micro Elements: Mise-en-Scene <ul><li>Mise-en-scène constitutes the key aspect of the pre-production phase of the film and can be taken to include all aspects of production design and Cinematography . </li></ul><ul><li>Mise-en-Scene creates the diegetic world - the fictional space and time implied by the narrative, i.e. the world in which the story takes place. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Aspects of Mise-en-Scene – video and print style <ul><li>Location - settings, set-design and iconography </li></ul><ul><li>Character – Costume, Properties and Make Up, Actors and Gesture </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography - Lighting and Colour </li></ul><ul><li>Layout and Page Design – colour, juxtaposition of elements. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Micro Elements: Camerawork <ul><li>There are Four aspects to camerawork that you need to understand: </li></ul><ul><li>Shot Types – particularly relevant for print. </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Camera Angles </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Link to Propp (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>The villain — struggles against the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>The donor — prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object. </li></ul><ul><li>The (magical) helper — helps the hero in the quest. </li></ul><ul><li>The princess and her father — gives the task to the hero, identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father can not be clearly distinguished. </li></ul><ul><li>The dispatcher — character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero or victim/seeker hero — reacts to the donor, weds the princess. </li></ul><ul><li>[ False hero ] — takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Micro Elements: Editing <ul><li>Editing is a post-production technique in which the footage shot during production is cut up and reassembled in such a way as to tell the story. </li></ul><ul><li>TV shows are not filmed in chronological order. </li></ul><ul><li>They are filmed out of order in short sequences, called ‘ takes ’, which then have to be assembled in the correct order. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Long Takes : takes of an unusually long length. </li></ul><ul><li>Short Takes : takes that only last for a few seconds . </li></ul><ul><li>There are two basic types of editing: </li></ul><ul><li>Continuity and… </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Continuity . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Continuity <ul><li>Establishing/Re-establishing Shot </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions . </li></ul><ul><li>The 180° Line Rule . </li></ul><ul><li>Action Match . </li></ul><ul><li>Crosscutting . </li></ul><ul><li>Cutaway . </li></ul><ul><li>Insert Shots . </li></ul><ul><li>Shot - Reverse Shot Structures . </li></ul><ul><li>Eyeline Match . </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>According to Pam Cook (1985), the standard Hollywood narrative structure should have: </li></ul><ul><li>  Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>A high degree of narrative closure . </li></ul><ul><li>A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence . </li></ul>The Structure Of The Classic Narrative System
  19. 19. Non-Continuity <ul><li>Montage Sequence . </li></ul><ul><li>Flash Back/Forward . </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis . </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Match . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Micro Elements: Sound <ul><li>Sound is layered on tracks in order to create meaning. On Premiere you used multiple audio tracks (one for dialogue and music). You can have sound bridges and sound motifs to enhance meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 types of sound: </li></ul><ul><li>Diegetic </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic sound </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Diegetic Sound , which refers to sound whose origin is to be located in the story world such as the voices of the actors, sound effects etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic Sound , which refers to sounds not explained in terms of any perceived source within the story world, such as mood music, or ‘voice-of-God’ type commentaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Music added to enhance the show’s action is the most common form of non-diegetic sound. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Diegetic sound includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Effects and in some cases… </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Non- Diegetic sound includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental Music </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Over/Narration </li></ul><ul><li>Non-diegetic sound effects (which can be asynchronous) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>“ Media is communication”. Discuss the ways that you have used media language to create meanings in one of your media products. </li></ul>Think of this question as the first part of your revision...
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1(b) Audience </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Aims/Objectives <ul><li>To reinforce basic audience theory. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against a consideration of your target audience. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Audiences <ul><li>Julian McDougall (2009) suggests that in the online age it is getting harder to conceive a media audience as a stable, identifiable group. </li></ul><ul><li>However – audiences still clearly make sense and give meaning to cultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>An audience can be described as a “temporary collective” (McQuail, 1972). </li></ul><ul><li>Key terms: </li></ul><ul><li>Mass / Niche & Mainstream / Alternative </li></ul>
  28. 28. Is your text popular for a mass audience? <ul><li>Historically (until the 19th century, at any rate) the term 'popular' was quite a negative thing, with overtones of vulgarity and triviality. Something not 'nice' or 'respectable'. In the modern world, the term means 'widespread', liked or at least encountered by many people. It has also come to mean 'mass-produced', i.e. made for the 'mass' of people. There is a downside to this, of course, in that it can also be interpreted as 'commercial' or 'trashy'. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>This leads into a further consideration, which is the definition of 'popular culture' as 'low' culture, something not for the elite, but for the 'common' people. Cultural value ('high' culture) has been traditionally associated with dominant or powerful groups - those who have appreciation of classical music, art, ballet, opera and so on. 'Low' or popular culture is everything not approved of as 'high'. It is vulgar, common, or 'easy ‘. It is postmodern? </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Another definition of 'popular' is literally 'of the people', a kind of 'folk' culture and this is an interesting area, because it encompasses the idea of an 'alternative' culture which includes minority groups, perhaps with subversive values . The 'indie' music scene is an example of this. So 'popular' culture can and sometimes does, challenge the 'dominant' cultural power groups. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>What should be done in terms of your coursework is three things: </li></ul><ul><li>1. You must detail the target audience for your product. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Detail what the audience might identify with in your product (could link to the construction of identity?) </li></ul><ul><li>3. What meanings/uses they might make from consuming/interacting with the product. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ien Ang (1991) detailed that media producers have an imaginary entity in mind before the construction of a media product. “ Audiences only exist as an imaginary entity, an abstraction, constructed from the vantage point of the institution, in the interest of the institution”.
  33. 33. Ang (1991) states that 'audiencehood is becoming an ever more multifaceted, fragmented and diversified repertoire of practices and experiences'. You must detail the social demographic of your target audience (gender, age, ethnicity, social class).
  34. 34. John Hartley (1987) “institutions are obliged not only to speak about an audience, but –crucially, for them – to talk to one as well; they need not only to represent audiences but to enter into relation with them”
  35. 35. Hartley (1987) also suggests that institutions must produce “ invisible fictions of the audience which allow the institutions to get a sense of who they must enter into relations with” . e.g. they must know their audience so they can target them effectively.
  36. 36. <ul><li>Gaining Feedback from your Audience </li></ul><ul><li>You attempted to gain feedback from your target audience in order to get their opinions, </li></ul><ul><li>You used the blogs, social networking etc in order to share ideas and images. </li></ul><ul><li>Write down how you did this. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Audience Reception Theories: Passive and Active Audiences There are basically two different schools of thought concerning how audiences consume media texts, those that believe that audiences are “passive” and those who believe that audiences are “active”. Passive Audience Theory   The idea that the media ‘injects’ ideas and views directly into the brains of the audience like a hypodermic needle, therefore, controlling the way that people think and behave.  
  38. 38. <ul><li>The Frankfurt School’s Hypodermic Theory (1930s) </li></ul><ul><li>This Marxist theory, which was championed by theorists such as Theodore Adorno , assumes a direct stimulus-response relationship between audience reactions and the consumption of media texts. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Criticisms Of Hypodermic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t allow for resistance or rejection of media messages. </li></ul><ul><li>Elitist. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplistic. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>‘ Passive’ audience/hypodermic theory are sometimes referred to overall as ‘Media Effects Theory’ , i.e. the media has a direct and powerful effect on its audience. – for your coursework this can relate directly to music videos – debate at the moment concerned with rap/gangster videos, Marylin Manson etc, computer gaming. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Moral Panics And Folk Devils </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Cohen in his book Folk Devils And Moral Panics (1972) defines a ‘ Moral Panic ’ as: </li></ul><ul><li>“… a mass response to a group, a person or an attitude that becomes defined as a threat to society.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cohen argues that the media, especially news media, often create and/or reinforce moral panics in the public. </li></ul><ul><li>The term ‘ Folk Devil ’ is the name given to the object of the moral panic, i.e. it is another name for a scapegoat. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Pluralist Model and the Active Audience Theory   </li></ul><ul><li>This is the idea that the audience have an active role to play in the understanding of, and creation, of meaning within a media text. </li></ul><ul><li>Predictably enough, the pluralist idea is the exact opposite of a hegemonic one. A pluralist model argues that there is diversity in society (everyone is different) and therefore there is also choice (we can choose what to believe and what not to believe.) </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>  So in media terms, because the audience (society) is diverse , with different points of view, the media is influenced by society . </li></ul><ul><li>Because the media need to please the audience they will try to reflect the values and beliefs that are predominant in society. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, they give us what we say we want rather than telling us what to think and believe, in order to make us stay ‘in our place’.  </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>McQuail’s Uses And Gratifications Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Dennis McQuail (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion/Escapism </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Relationship: A talking point </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Identity: identifying with the representations on display </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance: Information </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Parkin’s/Hall’s Audience Readings Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Frank Parkin (1972) and later Stuart Hall (1980) analysed the readings within audiences as either: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Dominant or Preferred Reading : The meaning they want you to have is usually accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Negotiated Reading : The dominant reading is only partially recognised or accepted and audiences might disagree with some of it or find their own meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Oppositional Reading : The dominant reading is refused, rejected because the reader disagrees with it or is offended by it, especially for political, religious, feminist, reasons etc. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>You must think about the meanings behind the text and how you encoded and they decoded (Hall, 1980) according to their ‘situated culture’ (personal, small scale communications and interactions we have on a day to day basis). </li></ul><ul><li>Its also worth considering the role (and need for) redundancy in your text: anticipation, and knowledge gained from previous texts as to whats coming next, is a key part of audience pleasure in some genres </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>“ Media texts will never be successful unless they are carefully constructed to target pre-established audience needs or desires”. Evaluate the ways that you constructed a media text to target a specific audience. </li></ul>Think of this question as the first part of your revision...
  48. 48. <ul><li>Use the F6/Lib books for specific, genre-related reading on audiences, eg Brigid Cherry writes in “Horror Zone” (2010) about the nature of online horror communities, noting the heightened participation and visibility of females, and how sites such as FanFiction.net encourage closed film narratives to be extended (also a common ploy in online marketing of film) </li></ul>Further reading
  49. 49. G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Narrative
  50. 50. Aims/Objectives • To reinforce the key narrative theorists. • To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against key narrative theory.
  51. 51. Narrative • Tim O’Sullivan (1998) argues that all media texts tell us some kind of story. • Media texts offer a way of telling stories about ourselves – not usually our own personal stories, but the story of us as a culture or set of cultures. • Narrative theory sets out to show that what we experience when we ‘read’ a story is to understand a particular set of constructions, or conventions, and that it is important to be aware of how these constructions are put together.
  52. 52. 3 important words… Narrative : The structure of a story. Diegesis : The fictional space and time implied by the narrative – the world in which the story takes place. Verisimilitude : Literally – the quality of appearing to be real or true. For a story to engage us it must appear to be real to us as we watch it (the diegetic effect). The story must therefore have verisimilitude – following the rules of continuity, temporal and spacial coherence.
  53. 53. The Structure Of The Classic Narrative <ul><li>According to Pam Cook (1985), the </li></ul><ul><li>standard Hollywood narrative structure </li></ul><ul><li>should have: </li></ul><ul><li>Linearity of cause and effect within an overall trajectory of enigma resolution . </li></ul><ul><li>A high degree of narrative closure . </li></ul><ul><li>A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Raymond Bellour <ul><li>I mention the point about the usefulness of redundancy, especially with reference to aud/genre. Bellour developed a point, not quite on this but on a linked idea (which also nicely builds on Pam Cook’s work): </li></ul><ul><li>‘ His … concept is that narrative consists of a play of difference and sameness. Although it might seem that difference is dominant, with continual changes of content through new events, characters, words spoken, and of form through framing, lighting, camera angle and most obviously the succession of shots, the lasting impression given by all successful narratives is one of cohesion and coherence.’ (Lapsley & Westlake, Film Theory: An Introduction , 1988: 176) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Tzvetan Todorov (1977) Bulgarian structural linguist. He was interested in the way language is ordered to infer particular meanings and has been very influential in the field of narrative theory.
  56. 56. <ul><li>Stage 1: A point of stable equilibrium , where everything is satisfied, calm and normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: This stability is disrupted by some kind of force, which creates a state of disequilibrium . </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Recognition that a disruption has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: It is only possible to re-create equilibrium through action directed against the disruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 5: Restoration of a new state of equilibrium. The consequences of the reaction is to change the world of the narrative and/or the characters so that the final state of equilibrium in not the same as the initial state. </li></ul>Tzvetan Todorov
  57. 57. Todorov and your ending <ul><li>Think about the ‘restoration’/new equilibrium stage. Jay McRoy (writing in “Horror Zone” (2010)), argues that horror films, despite their subversive reputation, fulfil a conservative function (think hegemony: maintaining the social order); ultimately the antagonist, who deviates in some key ways (often sexual) from the social norms, is vanquished and the good, heterosexual (often virginal) protagonist triumphs. Was this your intention for your full 90min feature? </li></ul><ul><li>There are exceptions to this: John Carpenter ended Halloween, which brought horror into the safe suburbs, with Michael Myers getting up and away despite being shot; the “bogeyman” was literally unkillable in this modern fairytale </li></ul><ul><li>In both Ginger Snaps and 28 Days Later the true monsters are not the werewolves or zombies, but general society (GS) or the forces of law and order (28) </li></ul><ul><li>Notably, all three are low-budget Indie productions (like yours), not products of the Hollywood studio system </li></ul>
  58. 58. Roland Barthes (1977) Establishment of plot or theme. This is then followed by the development of the problem, an enigma , an increase in tension . Finally comes the resolution of the plot. Such narratives can be unambiguous and linear.
  59. 59. <ul><li>According to Kate Domaille (2001) every story </li></ul><ul><li>ever told can be fitted into one of eight </li></ul><ul><li>narrative types . Each of these narrative types </li></ul><ul><li>has a source, an original story upon which the </li></ul><ul><li>others are based. These stories are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Achilles : The fatal flaw that leads to the destruction of the previously flawless, or almost flawless, person, e.g. Superman, Fatal Attraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Candide : The indomitable hero who cannot be put down, e.g. Indiana Jones, James Bond, Rocky etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cinderella : The dream comes true , e.g. Pretty Woman. </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Circe : The Chase , the spider and the fly, the innocent and the victim e.g. The Terminator. </li></ul><ul><li>Faust : Selling your soul to the devil may bring riches but eventually your soul belongs to him, e.g. Devil’s Advocate, Wall Street. </li></ul><ul><li>Orpheus : The loss of something personal, the gift that is taken away , the tragedy of loss or the journey which follows the loss, e.g. The Sixth Sense, Born On the Fourth Of July. </li></ul><ul><li>Romeo And Juliet : The love story , e.g. Titanic. </li></ul><ul><li>Tristan and Iseult : The love triangle. Man loves woman…unfortunately one or both of them are already spoken for, or a third party intervenes, e.g. Casablanca. </li></ul>
  61. 61. The Russian theorist Vladimir Propp (1928) studied the narrative structure of Russian Folk Tales. Propp concluded that regardless of the individual differences in terms of plot, characters and settings, such narratives would share common structural features.
  62. 62. <ul><li>He also concluded that all the characters could be </li></ul><ul><li>resolved into only seven character types in the 100 tales </li></ul><ul><li>he analyzed: </li></ul><ul><li>The villain — struggles against the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>The donor — prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object. </li></ul><ul><li>The (magical) helper — helps the hero in the quest. </li></ul><ul><li>The princess and her father — gives the task to the hero,identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father can not be clearly distinguished. </li></ul><ul><li>The dispatcher — character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off. </li></ul><ul><li>The hero or victim/seeker hero — reacts to the donor, weds the princess. </li></ul><ul><li>[False hero] — takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess. </li></ul>
  63. 63. When brought together and broken down into their constitute parts these myths can be used to formulate a universal monomyth that is essentially the condensed, basic hero narrative that forms the basis for every myth and legend in the world and is, therefore, common to all cultures. Both George Lucas and Stephen Spielberg were heavily influenced by Campbell’s theories and Star Wars conforms to Campbell’s model of the Monomyth almost exactly.
  64. 64. <ul><li>Ordinary World – the ordered world that the hero will choose (or be forced) to abandon. </li></ul><ul><li>Call To Adventure – a problem or challenge arises. </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal Of The Call – fear or reluctance may strike the hero. </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting With The Mentor – the mentor is a key character. </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing The First Threshold – the hero commits to the adventure. </li></ul><ul><li>Test, Allies, Enemies – the hero must learn the rules that will govern his quest. </li></ul><ul><li>Approach To The Innermost Cave – the most dangerous confrontation yet, perhaps the location of the treasure, or the object of the quest. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordeal – the hero must face his fear or mortal enemy who will seem more powerful. Mental or physical torture may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward (Seizing The Sword) – the hero can celebrate the victory. </li></ul><ul><li>The Road Back – vengeful forces controlled by the villain are unleashed. </li></ul><ul><li>Resurrection – perhaps a final confrontation with death. </li></ul><ul><li>Return With The Elixir – return to the ordinary world with some wisdom, knowledge or something else gained from the adventure. </li></ul>
  65. 65. These structures are not unique to film but also advertising and news stories. In fact the structures presented are an integral part of the majority of both western and eastern cultures - details how narrative works in society to inform the audience of events, people, places through mediated ideologies within them. Narratives have a common structure!
  66. 66. Jonathan Culler (2001) describes narratology as comprising many strands “ implicitly united in the recognition that narrative theory requires a distinction between story , a sequence of actions or events conceived as independent of their manifestation in discourse, and discourse , the discursive presentation or narration of events.” Structure is different to theme – narrative presents the form in which the theme is mediated/discussed.
  67. 67. Claude Lèvi-Strauss (1958) his ideas about narrative amount to the fact that he believed all stories operated to certain clear Binary Opposites e.g. good vs. evil, black vs. white, rich vs. poor etc. The importance of these ideas is that essentially a complicated world is reduced to a simple either/or structure. Things are either right or wrong, good or bad. There is no in between. This structure has ideological implications , if, for example, you want to show that the hero was not wholly correct in what they did, and the villains weren’t always bad. (Postmodernism?)
  68. 68. Levi-Strauss also looked deeper into the way that narrative were arranged in terms of themes within that were ultimately always systematic oppositions. The order of events can be called the syntagmatic structure of a narrative, but Levi-Strauss was more concerned with the deeper of paradigmatic arrangement of themes. There is a choice of elements ( paradigms ) and they are arranged/dealt with in a particular way ( syntagms ).
  69. 69. “ Media texts rely on cultural experiences in order for audiences to easily make sense of narratives”. Explain how you used conventional and / or experimental narrative approaches in one of your production pieces. Think of this question as the first part of your revision...
  70. 70. Its useful to consider this for every topic The research outlined by Brigid Cherry in “Horror Zone” (2010) is useful here. She examined the FanFiction.net site, noting the 69 fan fictions for Scream . She doesn’t make the point, but what this UGC or fan-made content actually reflects is the trend of ‘reimagining’ frnachises, as seen with Halloween and Nightmare on Elm Street … Impact of new media?
  71. 71. ‘… the concerns and interests of this group of horror fans centre around the desire for narrative continuation and more detailed narrative in some cases. As Will Brooker has stated of science-fiction cinema, cult texts generate fan material which suggests new narrative directions, develops characters or builds on the frameworks of the films. It is clear from the above survey that this fan culture is a “community of imagination” surrounding a heterogenous genre. Unlike fans of an ongoing television text, horror film fans have no continuous weekly fix of new stories. Accordingly, they are constantly seeking new films, and the various segments within horror fandom (be they oriented around identity or taste) are looking for information which will then inform them as to whether a production is likely to be of interest.’ [p.77] Impact of new media? – Brigid Cherry quote
  72. 72. Snakes on a Plane/Aud Feedback <ul><li>Consider how your narrative was constructed, and what role aud feedback played in this </li></ul><ul><li>I cite SoaPlane as it was famously influenced by an online fanbase; the wiki on this is fairly informative </li></ul>
  73. 73. G235: Critical Perspectives in Media Theoretical Evaluation of Production - Question 1(b) Genre
  74. 74. <ul><li>Aims/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce the concept of genre theory and key genre theorists. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against genre theory. </li></ul>
  75. 75. What Is Genre? • ‘ Genre’ is a critical tool that helps us study texts and audience responses to texts by dividing them into categories based on common elements. • Daniel Chandler (2001) - the word genre comes from the French (and originally Latin) word for ‘type'. The term is widely used in literary theory, media theory to refer to a distinctive type of ‘text’.
  76. 76. All Genres have Subgenres • This means that they are divided up into more specific categories that allow audiences to identify them specifically by their familiar and what become recognisable characteristics . • Steve Neale (1995) stresses that “ genres are not systems they are processes” – they are dynamic and evolve over time .
  77. 77. Generic Characteristics across all texts share similar elements... 1. Typical Mise-en-scène/Visual style (iconography, props, set design, lighting, temporal and geographic location, costume, shot types, camera angles, special effects). 2. Typical types of Narrative (plots, historical setting, set pieces). 3. Generic Types , i.e. typical characters (do typical male/female roles exist, archetypes?).
  78. 78. Typical studios/production companies… 4. Typical Personnel (directors, producers, actors, stars, auteurs etc.). 5. Typical Sound Design (sound design, dialogue, music, sound effects). 6. Typical Editing Style . • KEY: Important elements, less important elements, elements of minimal importance. How does this apply to your film trailer’s genre?
  79. 79. What is the genre of your film opening? <ul><li>Social realism? </li></ul><ul><li>Thriller? </li></ul><ul><li>Urban? </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary? </li></ul><ul><li>British? </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a hybrid? </li></ul>
  80. 80. Jason Mittell (2001) argues that genres are cultural categories that surpass the boundaries of media texts and operate within industry, audience, and cultural practices as well. In short, industries use genre to sell products to audiences . Media producers use familiar codes and conventions that often make cultural references to their audience’s knowledge of society + other texts. Genre allows audiences to make choices about what products they want to consume through acceptance in order to fulfil a particular pleasure.
  81. 81. Pleasure of genre for audiences • Rick Altman (1999) argues that genre offers audiences ‘a set of pleasures’. Emotional Pleasures : The emotional pleasures offered to audiences of genre films are particularly significant when they generate a strong audience response. Visceral Pleasures : Visceral pleasures are ‘gut’ responses and are defined by how the film’s stylistic construction elicits a physical effect upon its audience. This can be a feeling of revulsion, kinetic speed, or a ‘roller coaster ride’. Intellectual Puzzles : Certain film genres such as the thriller or the ‘whodunit’ offer the pleasure in trying to unravel a mystery or a puzzle. Pleasure is derived from deciphering the plot and forecasting the end or the being surprised by the unexpected.
  82. 82. The Strengths Of Genre Theory The main strength of genre theory is that everybody uses it and understands it – media experts use it to study media texts, the media industry uses it to develop and market texts and audiences use it to decide what texts to consume. The potential for the same concept to be understood by producers, audiences and scholars makes genre a useful critical tool. Its accessibility as a concept also means that it can be applied across a wide range of texts.
  83. 83. <ul><li>Genre Development and Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Over the years genres develop and change as the wider society that produce them also changes, a process that is known as generic transformation. </li></ul><ul><li>Metz (1974) argued that genres go through a cycle of changes during their lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Classic Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Parody Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruction Stage </li></ul>
  84. 84. Nicholas Abercrombie (1996) suggests that 'the boundaries between genres are shifting and becoming more permeable' Abercrombie is concerned with modern television, which he suggests seems to be engaged in 'a steady dismantling of genre’
  85. 85. Genres are not fixed. They constantly change and evolve over time. David Buckingham (1993) argues that 'genre is not... Simply &quot;given&quot; by the culture: rather, it is in a constant process of negotiation and change’. As postmodern theorist Jacques Derrida reminds us – ‘the law of the law of genre is a principle of contamination, a law of impurity’.
  86. 86. In terms of your coursework... • How we define a genre depends on our purposes (Chandler, 2001). • What was your purpose and the medium? • Your audience and the industry sector you were working within will have defined what you understood as the genre and sub-genre of the texts you created.
  87. 87. “ Media texts rely on audience knowledge of generic codes and conventions in order for them to create meaning”. Explain how you used or subverted generic conventions in one of your production pieces. Think of this question as the first part of your revision...
  88. 88. Genre conventions <ul><li>If you’re not clear on your genre’s history and development, and key conventions (you should have this from your AS blog), see if you can collaborate with someone else who worked within it … and you can also still access the wealth of books in F6/Lib </li></ul><ul><li>I also have 2 excellent feature-length docs on the slasher genre </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><ul><li>G235: Critical Perspectives in Media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Evaluation of Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question 1(b) Representation </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Aims/Objectives <ul><li>To reinforce basic representation theory. </li></ul><ul><li>To have a basic understanding of how to evaluate your coursework against key representation theory. </li></ul>
  91. 91. Representation - Definition <ul><li>How the media shows us things about society – but this is through careful mediation. Hence re-presentation. </li></ul><ul><li>For representation to be meaningful to audiences there needs to be a shared recognition of people, situations, ideas etc. </li></ul><ul><li>All representations therefore have ideologies behind them. Certain paradigms are encoded into texts and others are left out in order to give a preferred representation (Levi – Strauss, 1958). </li></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>Richard Dyer (1983) posed a few questions when analysing media representations in general. </li></ul><ul><li>1. What sense of the world is it making? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What does it imply? Is it typical of the world or deviant? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Who is it speaking to? For whom? To whom? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does it represent to us and why? How do we respond to the representation? </li></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>In terms of your coursework you will be looking at representation in terms of : </li></ul><ul><li>MARXISM </li></ul><ul><li>FEMINISM </li></ul><ul><li>POSTMODERNISM </li></ul><ul><li>STEREOTYPES </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>1. Ideologies and Representation (MARXISM) </li></ul><ul><li>A hegemonic view of society – fundamental inequalities in power between social groups. Groups in power exercise their influence culturally rather than by force. </li></ul><ul><li>Concept has origins in Marxist theory - ruling capitalist class are able to protect their economic interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Representations are encoded into mass media texts in order to reinforce dominant ideologies in society. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Ideology – refers to a set of ideas which produces a partial and selective view of reality. Notion of ideology entails widely held ideas or beliefs which are seen as ‘common’ sense and become naturalised. What is important is that, in Marxist terms, the media’s role may be seen as : Circulating and reinforcing dominant ideologies (less frequently) undermining and challenging such ideologies.
  96. 96. <ul><li>Rosalind Brunt (1992) details that ideologies are never simply ideas in peoples’ heads but are indeed myths that we live by and which contribute to our self worth. </li></ul><ul><li>David Gauntlett (2002) argues that “identities are not ‘given’ but are constructed and negotiated.” </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Michel Maffesoli (1985) identified the idea of the “urban tribe” – members of these small groups tend to have similar worldwide views, dress styles and common behaviours – leads to the decline of individualism. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Identity </li></ul><ul><li>David Gauntlett (2007) argues that “Identity is complicated. Everybody thinks they’ve got one. Artists play with the idea of identity in modern society.” </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>Masculinity and femininity are socially constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas about gender are produced and reflected in language O’ Sullivan et al (1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism is a label that refers to a broad range of views containing one shared assumption – gender inequalities in society, historically masculine power (patriarchy) exercised at right of women’s interests and rights. </li></ul>2. Gender and Ideology (FEMINISM)
  99. 99. <ul><li>Particularly in relation to film – objectification of women’s bodies in the media has been a constant theme. </li></ul><ul><li>Laura Mulvey (1975) argues that the dominant point of view is masculine. The female body is displayed for the male gaze in order to provide erotic pleasure for the male ( vouyerism ). Women are therefore objectified by the camera lens and whatever gender the spectator/audience is positioned to accept the masculine POV. </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>John Berger ‘ Ways Of Seeing’ ( 1972 ) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Men act and women appear”. “Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at”. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Women are aware of being seen by a male spectator” </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>Jib Fowles (1996) “in advertising, males gaze and females are gazed at”. </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Messaris (1997) “female models addressed to women....appear to imply a male point of view”. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of magazine covers of women, Janice Winship (1987) has been an extremely influential theorist. “The gaze between cover model and women readers marks the complicity between women seeing themselves in the image masculine culture has defined”. </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>In Slasher movies the psychopath is finally stopped by a character, which Carol J. Clover(1992), calls the ‘ Final Girl ’. </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Final Girl’ is always a pure, innocent girl who abstains from sex and may be less attractive than the other female characters. The message here is clear, in horror movies, if you are a women, Sex = Death. </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>To return to an earlier point, we must remember that the reading of our encoded representations is highly contingent upon the audience consuming the text (and perhaps also the context of consumption: the place or media used) </li></ul>
  104. 104. <ul><li>Ann Kaplan (1978) used the example of the film noir genre to argue that the largely negative (from a feminist perspective) representations of women in film noir can actually be seen as inspirational; while the femmes fatales are essentially antagonists they display great power over men! </li></ul>
  105. 105. 3. POSTMODERNISM AND REPRESENTATIONS OF REALITY <ul><li>‘ In a media saturated world, the distinction between reality and media representations becomes blurred or invisible to us.’ (Julian McDougall, 2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Modern period came before – people were concerned with representing reality, but now this gets mixed around and we end up with pastiche, parody and intertextuality. For example, Dominic Strinati (1995) details that “reality is now only definable in terms of the reflections of the mirror”. </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>Jean-Francois Lyotard (1984) and Jean Baudrillard (1980) share the belief that the idea of ‘truth’ needs to be deconstructed so that dominant ideas (that Lyotard argues are “grand narratives”) can be challenged. </li></ul>
  107. 107. <ul><li>Baudrillard discussed the concept of hyperreality – we inhabit a society that is no longer made up of any original thing for a sign to represent – it is the sign that is now the meaning. He argued that we live in a society of simulacra – simulations of reality that replace the real. Remember Disneyland? </li></ul>
  108. 108. <ul><li>We can apply this to texts that claim to represent reality – social realist films? </li></ul><ul><li>Merrin (2005) argues that “the media do not reflect and represent reality but instead produce it, employing this simulation to justify their own continuing existence”. </li></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>We often judge a text’s realism against our own ‘situated culture’. What is ‘real’ can therefore become subjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes can be used to enhance realism - a news programme, documentary, film text etc about football hooligans, for e.g, will all use very conventional images that are associated with the realism that audiences will identify with such as shots of football grounds, public houses etc. </li></ul>
  110. 110. 4. Stereotypes? <ul><li>O’Sullivan et al (1998) details that a stereotype is a label that involves a process of categorisation and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>We can call stereotypes shorthand to narratives because such simplistic representations define our understanding of media texts – e.g we know who is good and who is evil. </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>First coined by Walter Lippmann (1956) the word stereotype wasn’t meant to be negative and was simply meant as a shortcut or ordering process. </li></ul><ul><li>In ideological terms, stereotyping is a means by which support is provided by one group’s differential against another. </li></ul>
  112. 112. <ul><li>Orrin E. Klapp's (1962) distinction between stereotypes and social types is helpful. </li></ul><ul><li>Klapp defines social types as representations of those who 'belong' to society. </li></ul><ul><li>They are the kinds of people that one expects, and is led to expect, to find in one's society, whereas stereotypes are those who do not belong, who are outside of one's society. </li></ul>
  113. 113. <ul><li>Richard Dyer (1977) suggests Klapp’s distinction can be reworked in terms of the types produced by different social groups according to their sense of who belongs and who doesn't, who is 'in' and who is not </li></ul>
  114. 114. <ul><li>Tessa Perkins (1979) says, however, that stereotyping is not a simple process. She identified that some of the many ways that stereotypes are assumed to operate aren’t true. </li></ul><ul><li>They aren’t always negative (French good cooks) </li></ul><ul><li>They aren’t always about minority groups or those less powerful (upper class twits) </li></ul><ul><li>They are not always false – supported by empirical evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not always rigid and unchanging. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkins argues that if stereotypes were always so simple then they would not work culturally and over time. </li></ul>
  115. 115. <ul><li>Martin Barker (1989) - stereotypes are condemned for misrepresenting the ‘real world’. (e.g. Reinforcing that the (false) stereotype that women are available for sex at any time) . He also says stereotypes are condemned for being too close to real world (e.g. showing women in home servicing men, which many still do). </li></ul><ul><li>Bears out Perkins’ point that for stereotypes to work they need audience recognition. </li></ul>
  116. 116. <ul><li>Dyer (1977) details that if we are to be told that we are going to see a film about an alcoholic then we will know that it will be a tale either of sordid decline or of inspiring redemption. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a particularly interesting potential use of stereotypes, in which the character is constructed, at the level of costume, performance, etc., as a stereotype but is deliberately given a narrative function that is not implicit in the stereotype, thus throwing into question the assumptions signalled by the stereotypical iconography. </li></ul>
  117. 117. <ul><li>“ Representations in media texts are often simplistic and reinforce dominant ideologies so that audiences can make sense of them”. Evaluate the ways that you have used/challenged simplistic representations in one of the media products you have produced. </li></ul>Think of this question as the first part of your revision...
  118. 118. The other <ul><li>When considering representations ultimately we are often evaluating whether the type/category/individual being examined is positioned as ‘the other’ – different & alien; distinct from ‘us’ </li></ul>

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