Media Key Concept GRANITE Every media text belongs to a Genre (e.g. a horror film, dance track, teen magazine) Within that text, a person, place or object is being Represented in some way, shape or form. The Audience for that media text will make sense of it using their personal and shared experiences. The text also contains a Narrative, be it a photograph of war or some bad gangsta lyrics about pimping your uncle The text is constructed by the Ideology embedded within the text. It was produced using some Technology, be it a Desk Top Publishing software or hardware The Evidence is the product itself which you can then reference against other Experiences youve had with similar Media
Genre Genres are defined by filmmakers and understood by audiences through shared conventions and codes. Genre which is easily identified by audiences who have expectations about what a particular film are called generic codes and conventions. But films are also a good at illustrating how genres can evolve into hybrids. Link to other KeyGeneric Feature Explanation Concepts A character who is presented in a media text we sometimes Representation andCharacterisation call them stereotypes, it can refer to stars/actors who play a Narrative particular type of role, personal qualities of main characters The geographical (place) and historical (context) of the text RepresentationSetting (Diegesis) might help identify genre. (cultural ref) Audiences will have an understanding of similar/comparable Expectations texts to help identify the genre. Previous knowledge of the Audience genre also allows audiences to predict narrative patterns. Often predictable plot lines and narrative structures allow us to Story Narrative identify genre. The way in which ideas are explored, ideology is presented and Themes subject matter dealt with. Different genres will deal with these Narrative in different ways. A range of props/stock images and symbols which have fixed Mise-en-scene connotations with a certain type of genre (Western - desert, Media Language (iconography) hats, guns.) Production Creative use of camera techniques, lighting and sound. Can Media Language techniques also be linked to editing and use of colour.
Representation This is when an idea is re-presented by the media texts Despite the media being false or true, we still accept it Common factors that represent media: Age, Ethnicity, Gender,& DisabilityWe need to think about: Who produced it? What/who is represented in the text? How is that thing represented? Why was this particular representation selected? What might the alternatives have been? What frame of reference does the audience use when understanding the representation?
Audience People who consume any media text Without audience there will be no media, no profit Mass audience (broadcast audience): Mainstream, large group Niche audience: smaller but influential with unique interestCategories: Group A: Well paid professionals, doctors, lawyers Group B: Fairly well paid professionals, teacher Group C1: ‘white collar’ nurses, junior jobs Group C2: ‘blue collar’ electricians ,plumbers Group D: manual workers, drivers, post sorters Group E: students, unemployed, pensioners
Narrative Essentially, narrative is examining the story and organisation of a media text. A story that is created in a constructed format, that describes a series of fictional or non-fictional events Gender Character Form Time Joseph Campbell had a theory called The Hero’s Journey. Which has three acts Departure Initiation Return
Ideology Dominant Ideology refers to the set of values, beliefs and ideas held by an Institution, organisation or audience Hegemony fits in with the beliefs to ‘fit in’ & keep their objections quietExamples: Power Education Gender Sexuality Racism Feminism Nationality Ownership Stereotypes Identity Youth & politics Crime
Institution Creates & distributes media products Logos: to establish what they are Brand: Symbolises what it is Conglomerates: a company that owns other large companys ASA: Advertising Standard Agency which make sure all ads are legal, decent honest & truthful Regulation: monitors ads, protects people from inappropriateness & unsuitable ads. Censorship: where media text cause harmful/ sensitive to the audience Its more about the Institutions care about branding and recognition rather than audience pleasures and satisfactions.
Technology Technology has changed the way that we consume traditional media products and it is worth examining for ideas and inspiration. TV is now being produced in HD and films are experimenting with new technologies all the time, driving industries forward. Audiences also drive demand for new technologies, and this illustrates the reliance upon audience and producer co-working together to satisfy demands. The olden Titanic is now being released in 3D!
Sound Diegetic Sound – sound that can be heard by the characters within a scene Non-diegetic Sound – sound that the characters cannot hear and is not part of the imaginary world of the story Score – The musical component of a programme’s soundtrack Sound Effects – sounds that are added to a film during the post-production stage.
Technical Codes Camera Angles Lighting Editing
Editing Editing: sound and images are organised into an overall narrative Continuity Editing: create a sense of reality and time moving forward Jump Cut: cut between two similar shots Credits: the information at the beginning and end of a film, which gives details of cast and crew Cross Cutting: the editing technique of altering one narrative with another usually in different locations or places Cutaways: a shot that interrupts a scene & goes back Freeze Frame: stopping a film in order to focus in on one event Eye-line Match: shot of what the character has been looking at Flashback: an event that happened earlier in the film’s narrative. Graphic Match: two different objects of the same shape are dissolved from one into the other Juxtaposition: the placement of images on either side of an edit Linear Narrative: a style of storytelling in which events happen chronologically. Montage Editing: the juxtaposition of seemingly unconnected images in order to create meaning. Parallel Editing: two locations are cut together Visual Effects: alter previously-filmed elements by adding, removing or enhancing objects Match on Action: A shot that emphasises continuity of space and time by matching the action of the preceding shot with the continuation of the action
Other Terms Artificial Light: A source of light created by lighting equipment, rather than from natural sources Convention: a frequently used element which becomes standard Disequilibrium: the period of instability and insecurity in a film’s narrative Enigma: the question or mystery that is posed within a film’s narrative. Equilibrium: a state of peace and calm, which often exists at the beginning of a film’s narrative Framing: the selection of elements such as characters, setting and iconography that appear within a shot Genre: a film identification Iconography: the objects within a film that are used to evoke particular meanings Intertextuality: reference within a film to another film, media product, work of literature or piece of artwork
Camera Shot Ariel Shot: shot taken from an overhead position Close Up: object is shown on a large scale Extreme Close Up: frame the scale very large, to show part of body Medium Shot: scale of object is in moderate size, waist up Two Shot: shot of 2 characters, usually to establish a sort of relationship POV Shot: camera placed in the characters eyes Over the Shoulder Shot: looking behind a characters shoulder Overhead Shot: over the head shot Reaction Shot: a shot that cuts away from main scene to show the reaction
Camera Angles Camera Angle: position of the camera High Angle: looking down Low Angle: looking up Canted Framing: frame is not levelled, appearing tipped
Camera Movement Pan: movement of the camera from left to right vice versa on a tripod, produces space horizontally Track: camera follows the object Crane Shot: moving through the air in any direction on a crane Steadicam: smooth shot, when camera is moved very fast Tilt: camera movement by swivelling upward or downward, Producing space vertically Zoom lens: lens that change during a shot
Denotation/Connotation Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition.“For example, if you look up the word snake in adictionary, you will discover that it means "anyof numerous scaly, legless, sometimesvenomous." Connotation, on the other hand, refers to the associations or the emotional suggestions related to that word.The connotations for the word snake couldinclude evil or danger.
Mise-En-Scene Mise en scene: put into the frame Props: object used Costume: colour & style can have an impact on the character Lighting: the harshness or softness represents the mood Makeup: this can refer to masks, prosthetics and special effects.
Colour Psychology Black Authority, power & overpowering Green Makes people appear thinner & stylish Improve vision Black also implies submission & Evil Nature, calming, refreshing Dark green is masculine, conservative, White and implies wealth Innocence, purity, light, summer & neutral Could bring bad luck for fashion Doctors and nurses wear white to imply sterility Yellow Red Cheerful, attention, optimistic Emotionally intense colour, love, noticeable, Overpowering if overused Red cars are popular targets for thieves Concentration, metabolism Furniture gets attention Purple Pink Royalty, luxury, wealth & sophistication Romantic & girly Feminine & romantic Appear artificial Blue Popular & loyalty Brown Opposite reaction as red. Solid, reliable ,earth Peaceful, calm &productive Light brown implies genuineness Cold &depressing. dark brown wood or leather. Good in gyms Sad, wistful
Audience Theory The Hypodermic Needle Model: From the 1920s this theory explained how the mass audience react to mass media. Suggesting that the audience receive information without attempting to challenge the data. Governments have found ways to persuade audience and produced propaganda to try & change the way people think The Two Step Flow: In 1940 it was suggested that the reaction from the media comes from an ‘Opinion Leader’ and then onto the individual following that leader. The Use & Gratification has been developed where in 1948 Lasswell suggested Surveillance, Correlation, Entertainment & Cultural transmission where the functions for an individual reacting towards media. Where Blumler & Katz expanded this theory in 1974 stating that the audience may use these the purpose: Diversion: escape from everyday routine/problem Personal Relationships: emotional use/ subbing a character for yourself Personal Identity: reflecting yourself/ learning behaviours & values Surveillance: information that could be useful Reception Theory: The audiences circumstance (gender, class, age, ethnicity), When text is encoded by the producer & decoded by the reader , where Stuart Hall had a theory of 3 where: Dominant: audience agree with the values Negotiated: Audience agree with the values but disagree with certain aspects Oppositional: audience disagree with the values
Genres in films Action: high energy, big-budget physical stunts & chase, rescues, battles, escapes, destruction, rhythm & paceSub-Genre: Disaster film e.g. Space Alien Invaders Attack LosAngeles: Battle Los Angeles 2011 Adventure: exciting, historical searches, expeditions, lost continents Comedies: light hearted, amuse, exaggerated Crime: criminals, bank robbers, underworld, law Dramas: serious, plot, realistic, life stories Epics: historical, imagined event, mythic, legendary Horror: frighten, worst fears. Supernatural & fantasy Musicals: song & dance routines Sci-Fi: imaginative, heroes, aliens, planets, futuristic War: heartbreak of war, fight on land or sea Has many Subs Westerns: American film industry, recognisable plot
Film IndustryInstitution & Audience Issues are raised by media ownerships Importance in media goes across production, distribution & marketing Technologies have been introduced at the level of production, distribution, marketing & exchange The audience are changing Translations: old practises are kept intact Localization: take advantage of the technology, making things more efficient