CPD Presentation: Smoke curtains and fire curtains

4,115 views

Published on

A presentation covering the use and definition of smoke curtains and fire curtains.

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,115
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
563
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
107
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • By investing in innovation, products, services and people, Colt International has established itself as an international leader in the fields of:
    Smoke Control
    Solar Shading
    Natural Ventilation
    Louvre
    Environmental Comfort Control (HVAC)
  • We’ll look first of all at a comparison between the two types of curtain. They may look very similar but they do very different jobs.
    The we’ll look at each product in turn in more detail, with a quick summary at the end.
  • Most suppliers use multiple rollers for curtains with a width exceeding about 5m (rollers tend to sag if too wide).
    One German manufacturer offers longer single roller curtains with anti sag support from jockey wheels.
    Head box size is controlled by the diameter of the rolled up curtain, so for long drops larger head boxes are usually needed.
    The weight of the bottom bar is critical, both to provide a motive force for gravity drop and to prevent excessive deflection once installed.
    But of course the heavier the bottom bar is the more powerful the motor needs to be to raise the curtain.
    Side guides are not required by any codes but they can be useful to reduce deflection or to minimise leakage through side gaps.
    Control can be from a manual switch, fire alarm system signal, Colt OPV or any other suitable initiation device.
  • Heat exposure D30 to D120 or DH30 to DH120
    Response must be immediate
    2 classes for speed of descent, max 0.15m/s or 0.3m/s
    No maximum limit for gap area in total but side gaps to building structure are limited to 20mm < 2m travel, 40mm, 60mm > 6m travel
    ASB1 – gravity, fast (not below 2.5m)
    ASB2 – driven, fast (not below 2.5m)
    ASB3 – gravity, slow
    ASB4 – driven, slow
    The old British standard, BS 7346-3 is obsolete, withdrawn and should not be used. It has been entirely superceded by BS EN 12101-1.
  • BS 7346 guidance gives:
    Maximum smoke reservoir areas, leading to smoke curtain locations
    Minimum depth; 100mm below base of layer in deflected position
    Minimum depth for use as a channelling screen
    Calculation for deflection
    Avoidance of increased edge gaps for deflected curtains.
  • For smoke reservoir boundaries the bottom of the curtain should be Xmm below the calculated smoke layer base.
    X = 500 according to the SVA Guide.
    X = 100 according to BS 7346-4
    X = 0 according to CIBSE Guide E. Take your pick.
    For channelling screens the curtain should extend below the bottom of the smoke plume as it exits the door or window.
    For balcony edge screens the curtain should extend below the local deepening depth.
  • It’s frightening how many times a curtain is installed and then a ceiling contractor comes along and plasters right up to the casing with no thought for access.
    Access is needed to all controllers and battery back ups and to the curtain itself to allow the casing cover plate(s) to be removed for motor or material changes.
    Fixed curtains are lightweight materials that billow and move in variable air currents. This can be annoying and, if severe, can cause early failure.
    Automatic curtains will billow and deflect under smoke buoyancy pressures and air movement. Ensure that once it has billowed the curtain is still deep enough and that edge gaps have not been compromised. There is a calculation method from BRE given in EN 12101-1 and other documents. It appears to be very conservative.
  • For annual maintenance, access is needed to the controls, which may be in the roof space above a ceiling.
    If a motor or the fabric requires replacement then the bottom pane of the head box needs to be removed for the whole roller length and the complete roller assembly removed.
  • Fire resistance is rated for integrity (E) and, if desired, radiation (W) or insulation (I)
    Radiation is likely to be chosen over insulation for many “insulated” smoke curtains as insulation is often achieved by an intumescent coating,
    which makes thermocouple location difficult for insulation measurement.
    Response must be immediate
    Max speed of descent, 0.15m/s (vert) or 0.3m/s (horiz or vertical when higher than 2.5m above floor level)
    No gap failing the fire test is allowed.
    Where a curtain is required to be smoke sealed, smoke leakage is tested and corrected by calculation for unit size.
    All accessories offered must be tested as part of the test assembly.
    prEN16034 is the proposed fire door product standard. It is not as comprehensive as BS 8524-1.
  • The fire engineered approach is split into two, a table based method for relatively small and simple applications and a full calculation method for use when the tables are not applicable.
  • Multi positional deployment allows the curtain to be used as a smoke barrier during the escape period, so people can escape under it, before dropping fully to provide fire integrity.
    Access switch opens curtain while pressed. It then drops immediately.
    Egress switch opens curtain, holds open for pre set period then drops again. A single press is needed for this.
    Location of the switches needs to be considered: Which side or both? Table 4 of BS8524-2 provides guidance.
    Obstruction warning can be a light beam or a light curtain.
  • Automatic curtains will billow and deflect under smoke buoyancy pressures and air movement. A billowing curtain will cause extra friction at the side guides.
    This could be sufficient to overcome the gravity force dropping the curtain, causing it to stick part way down.
    Always ensure that fire curtains which might be affected are fully deployed before starting smoke extract fans.
    Deflection is an important element, especially when protecting means of escape routes. Make sure it is accounted for.
    It’s frightening how many times a curtain is installed and then a ceiling contractor comes along and plasters right up to the casing with no thought for access.
    Access is needed to all controllers and battery back ups and to the curtain itself to allow the casing cover plate(s) to be removed for motor or material changes.
    If a curtain is always required to drop in case of fire and no access/egress switches are installed, it odes not matter if controls fail due to effects of fire.
    Otherwise care should be taken with selection and location of controls to ensure control can be maintained in case of fire.
  • Test requirements for fire curtains are stricter than for smoke curtains.
    This test schedule comes from BS 8524-2.
  • The end.
    Any questions???
  • CPD Presentation: Smoke curtains and fire curtains

    1. 1. Smoke curtains and fire curtains Colt Technical Seminar
    2. 2. A brief history of Colt  Private Company founded in 1931  Founder: I J O’Hea OBE (1897 - 1984)  2012 Group Turnover: £150 million  Manufactures in the UK, Holland, Saudi Arabia, China and Singapore “I J O’Hea. Colt Founder”
    3. 3. Current UK Business markets  Smoke Control  Solar Shading  Natural Ventilation  Louvre  Environmental Comfort Control
    4. 4. Smoke curtains and fire curtains Covering: • • Fire curtain vs smoke curtain What are smoke curtains and fire curtains? • • • • • Construction Relevant UK standards Building Regulations (UK) Applications Use, testing and maintenance • Summary
    5. 5. Smoke curtains vs fire curtains Similar products but very different properties and uses: A smoke curtain is used as part of a smoke control system to control the flow of smoke – typically as a channelling screen or a smoke reservoir screen. A fire curtain is used to provide fire separation between 2 spaces – typically to protect a lift door or an escape route through an open plan dwelling. A smoke curtain is only exposed to smoke so is rated to 600oC. A fire curtain is exposed to fire so is rated against the ISO fire curve, which exceeds 1000oC. A smoke curtain usually remains above head height. (except round atria or escalators) A fire curtain fully closes an opening.
    6. 6. What are smoke curtains and fire curtains? Smoke barriers Smoke barriers may be conventional smoke curtains or any other product which will withstand temperatures up to 600oC (fire rated glazing, builder’s work, etc). Smoke curtains may be fixed or automatic. Fixed curtains are usually a lightweight fabric, rigidly fixed along the edges. Automatic curtains are usually a similar fabric, wrapped round a motorised roller. Concertina designs are also available.
    7. 7. What are smoke curtains and fire curtains? Fire curtains Fire curtains replace conventional fixed elements, doors, shutters or any other product providing a fire rated partition. Fire curtains are always automatic (active). Automatic curtains are usually a similar fabric to a smoke curtain but wire reinforced to withstand higher temperatures, wrapped round a motorised roller. Side guides are always required.
    8. 8. Smoke curtains
    9. 9. Smoke curtains Construction Smoke curtains typically comprise: -A roller with integrated motor and bearings -A fabric fixed to and rolled round the roller -A weighted bottom bar fixed to the fabric -A head box to contain the mechanism. Curtains may be gravity drop or drive down. In multiple curtains the rollers and fabric overlap. Optional side guides may be available. Control is usually from a zone control panel. Battery back up is usually provided (essential if curtains drive down).
    10. 10. Smoke curtains Standards (product) From July, smoke barriers must comply with BS EN 12101-1: 2006 and be CE marked. Testing includes: -Heat exposure (minimum 600oC/30 minutes) -Reliability (1000 cycles) -Response time -Speed of descent (0.06m/s to 0.3m/s) -Measurement of gaps. Gravity descent or powered descent is permitted. This standard applies to static barriers too - whatever they are made of.
    11. 11. Smoke curtains Standards (application) There is no specific application standard. BR368 gives guidance (out of date). BS 7346-4 gives limited guidance in 6.6, 6.9 and Annex D Building Regulations Make no mention of smoke curtains
    12. 12. Smoke curtains Applications There are 4 common applications for smoke curtains: -Smoke reservoir boundaries -Channelling screens -Balcony edge screens -Atrium balcony protection
    13. 13. Smoke curtains Issues -Access for maintenance and repair -Location of controls and battery back ups -Air movement -Deflection, billowing and edge gaps -Location – not above fire source
    14. 14. Smoke curtains Use, testing and maintenance Automatic smoke curtains are not designed for daily use. The 1000 operation life cycle test represents only 20 years of testing once a week. Life safety systems should be tested once a week. Annual maintenance is normally sufficient. - Access
    15. 15. Fire curtains
    16. 16. Fire curtains Construction Fire curtains typically comprise: -A roller with integrated motor and bearings -A fabric fixed to and rolled round the roller -A weighted bottom bar fixed to the fabric -A head box to contain the mechanism -Side guides to retain the fabric and bottom bar. In multiple curtains the rollers and fabric overlap. Control is usually from a zone control panel. Battery back up is usually provided (essential if emergency access or egress controls fitted).
    17. 17. Fire curtains Standards (product) Fire curtains should comply with BS 8524-1: 2013. Gravity descent is required (except for horizontal units). Testing includes: -Fire resistance (EN 1634-1 or BS 476-22) (integrity, optional radiation/insulation) -Reliability (impact and cycle test) -Response time -Speed of descent (0.06m/s to 0.15 or 0.3m/s) -Smoke containment (optional) -Accessories Under EU rules, curtains replacing a fire door or shutter should instead be CE marked to prEN 16034 once this is harmonised.
    18. 18. Fire curtains Standards (application) The application standard is BS 8524-2: 2013. This has recently replaced PAS121 Building Regulations There is no mention of fire curtains. Fire curtains are a fairly recent development ADB is old.
    19. 19. Fire curtains Applications Example applications for fire curtains: - As direct replacements for fire doors or fire shutters - To protect lift doors - To close voids used as smoke shafts - To protect MoE in open plan dwellings -To protect counters, serveries, service shafts -To allow escape along narrow atrium balconies
    20. 20. Fire curtains Insulation and radiation Most basic fire curtains have no insulation rating. Where an insulation rating is wanted: -If available, insulation rating should be used -Alternatively BS8524-2 provides ways to use radiation data instead: Simple table for small dwellings Fire engineered approach
    21. 21. Fire curtains Optional controls: Multi position deployment -Curtain drops part way and holds for set period before full deployment Emergency access switch -Allows fire service to raise the curtain to enter Emergency egress switch -Allows occupants to raise the curtain to escape Obstruction warning -Provides audible and visual alarm if an obstruction remains in place for a set period
    22. 22. Fire curtains Issues -Close before starting smoke extract fans -Deflection -Access for maintenance and repair -Location of controls and battery back ups -Obstruction
    23. 23. Fire curtains Use, testing and maintenance Automatic fire curtains may be designed for daily use. Most are intended for emergency use only. Reliability classes from 0 to 200,000 cycles are available in BS8524-1; most curtains are likely to be rated C1 (500 cycles). Maintenance should be to manufacturer’s instructions – annual is normally sufficient. - Access
    24. 24. Fire curtains
    25. 25. Summary Smoke curtains and fire curtains -Are different and not interchangeable - Fire curtains restrict the spread of fire (and smoke) -Smoke curtains only restrict the spread of smoke -From July 1st all smoke curtains sold in the UK should be CE marked to EN 12101-1 -Fire curtains cannot currently be CE marked to the CPR -Both products enhance architectural flexibility and, used properly, form important parts of a building’s fire safety strategy.

    ×